quarta-feira, 1 de janeiro de 2014

Lesson 1 - The book of Exodus and the captivity of Israel in Egypt, 1pte, 4Tr13

Lesson 1 - The book of Exodus and the captivity of Israel in Egypt, 1pte, 4Tr13 ...

BIBLE LESSONS - 1st Quarter 2014 - CPAD - For youth and adults
Theme: A Journey of Faith - The Formation of Israel and its spiritual heritage
Comment: Pastor Anthony Gilberto
ons, illustrations, videos and questionnaires: Ev. Luiz Henrique de Almeida Silva
Golden Text
"And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, Surely God will visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence" (Gen. 50.25).
Actually Practice
The purposes of God are immutable and will be fulfilled at the time appointed by Him
Monday - 50.25 Gen. Joseph did not forget the promise
Tuesday - Ex 1.7 The growth of the Hebrews in Egypt
Wednesday - Ex 1.11 The affliction of the Hebrews
Thursday - Exodus 1.13,14 The oppression of the Chosen People
Friday - 33.3 Jr attends the cry of GOD its people
Saturday - Job 42:2 The Lord's purposes will never be
1 - Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt with Jacob, each came home with: 2 - Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 3 - Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4 - Dan Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5 - All the souls that descended from Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt. 6 - Therefore, since Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation, 7 - the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; so that the land was filled with them . 8 - Then there arose a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph, 9, who said to his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we. 10 - Come, let us wisely to him, lest they multiply, and it happen, coming war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and let the earth. 11 - And the Egyptians they set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Rameses. 12 - But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew: and they were grieved because of the children of Israel. 13 - And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor: 14 - so they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar and in brick, and in all the work in the field: all their service, wherein served with hardness.
EXODUS Introduction and Commentary - By R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. Menzies College, Macquarie University - Religious Society New Life - Religious Association Publisher Christian World
It would be difficult to find a single topic of importance of the Old Testament, or even the New, which is not exemplified in the book of Exodus. Many of the themes used later in the Bible, there are actually in this book, the interpretation of the experience of Israel, through the great acontecimen t those that led to its organization as a people and nation. This introduction Theological consider some important points related to the nature of God. Our treatment does not aimed at exhausting the subject; searching only be a meager introduction to the wealth of theological book.
I. The God who controls history
invisible God is the controller of all history and all circumstances.
This is seen in Exodus 1, although the name of God is not even mentioned until verse 20. This omission does not mean that Hebrew was irreligious but, in contrast to us, he sensed the hand of God in every circumstance of life, not just in times more crucial that God acted through what we call "miracles" . Nothing is beyond His power and control - even obstinacy . of a Pharaoh (4:21) It is this same conviction that led iraelitas to regard the Exodus as the greatest event in history and as the redemptive act of God towards Israel That. Exodus happened, any Israeli could doubt, they had been truly saved from the power of Egypt. The only likely explanation for such failure was that it was a work of God, for all things were under His control. Such invincible power GOD about history, . however, is not exercised arbitrarily or unreasonably It controls and regulates all events for the ultimate good of His children, whatever the immediate effects This is demonstrated in. opening chapter of Exodus; their own repressive measures adopted against Israel only made ​​the Israelites multiply more (1:12).'s loving providence of God is seen again in the preservation of the life of Moses and his adoption by Pharaoh's daughter (2:10) as well as the fate of Israeli midwives (1:21). One can argue that midwives had merited divine grace for their faithfulness to God (1:17) and that the boy Moses had done nothing to discredit the divine care. GOD, in however, show the same love when Moses, because of his untimely act, he ends up as a penniless fugitive in the land of Midian (2:15-22). Nobody could say that the ungrateful Israel deserved the divine loving care, the study their subsequent history (16:3, for example), and without a doubt, Israel was in Egypt so unworthy as it was later in the desert. Thus, what began as the doctrine of the providence of God ultimately becoming the doctrine of God's grace, His unmerited favor and love, spilled on objects unworthy of His choosing.
GOD is YHWH. Exodus 3:13-15 makes it clear that the revelation of God in this name is fundamental to the theology of the Mosaic age. As for the pre-Mosaic was several points of view. Some think that the name YHWH was not known or used before the time of Moses (6:3) and that its present use in the early chapters of the Old Testament serves only to show the full identity of the patriarchs GOD and GOD known to Moses and revealed to him. (See, however, on this subject, Introduction to the Old Testament by RK Harrison, pgs. 578-582.) Other, based on texts like Genesis 4:26, maintain that the name itself has been known for some of the ancestors of Israel, long before Moses, and that explains the free use of the name in the earliest accounts of Genesis. They also say that 6:3 refers to a revelation of the meaning of the name, which was then discovered, had new and deeper dimensions. The question, however, is not important in relation to the theology of Exodus. The important fact is that God has a name and is therefore fully personal.
To the Hebrew, "name" symbolizes "character." Thus, to know the "name" of God is to know him as he is, and "calling on His name" is to appeal to Him based on His revealed and known nature (Psalm 99:6). "Proclaim" the "name" YHWH is to describe His character (33:19). Since Israel was the people of YHWH (19:5), the name of YHWH was involved in everything that happened to them, this fact would become important later when the intercession of Moses for Israel (32:11-13). God's reputation is closely linked to the Israelites.
GOD can not leave, on the contrary, must obtain glory to His name through them. If God now has a new "name" (and if this is the correct interpretation of 6:3), this means that for the Israeli new revelation happened, superior to that associated with the old name "El Shaddai" (Gen. 17:1 -8) or any other name given to the patriarchal God. From here to the Old Testament, the name YHWH mean everything that the name "Jesus" means to the New Testament.'s The name that sums up all last revelation (because YHWH is still the "God of your fathers," even under a new name) and lies in the center of his new experience of redemption and salvation. The mere mention of the name "Jesus", for the believer, reminds the cross;. Thus the simple mean YHWH, for a Jew, reminds the Exodus
when God describes Himself as YHWH, it is perfectly natural to add phrase "who brought you out of Egypt" (20:2), as it is perfectly natural for the believer to describe Christ as the one who "redeemed us" (G1 3:13).
regard to the exact meaning of the name YHWH has been a .. controversy of considerable proportions See review of Exodus 3 for the suggestions Two points, however, must be considered: first, that 3:14 is the only place in the Old Testament in which the meaning of the name is explained Second,. the name is clearly represented as something that only God can explain the theological implication of these two points is that no one except God can explain who and what God is;.'ll learn the meaning of His "name" from what he says and makes. Whatever the precise grammatical force of 3:14, this fact is clear since the Hebrew verb (hayah) "being" has the meaning of "being present (and active)": is dynamic and not static. Israel was not left, as happened to other nations, speculating about problems concerning the existence and nature of the gods. His God was a "GOD is love", active in history, and he revealed himself in word and deed.
Exodus itself initially defines the nature of YHWH as revealed in the salvation of Israel from the power of Egypt, which he accomplished.
A subsequent history of Israel add sentence after sentence to the initial statement of their creed (who brought you out of Egypt) as their experience of salvation unfolded YHWH would not be confessed only as the one who had taken Israel out of Egypt (20.: 2), but also as the one who introduced the people in the land of Canaan (Deut. 26:9) and as the one who raised judges (Judges 2:16), and so on.
promise inherent in the initial explanation of the divine name (3 14) was being fulfilled in history, whether it was "I am who I am" or "I'll be what I will be" Since more and more the nature of God was being revealed to men through His words and His. acts, His "name" gradually took on a richer meaning. The crowning consummation and would in New Testament days, when most word of God to man was said and His greatest act of salvation was completed (John 1:14 and 19:30). From then on, he would be known as the "God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Rom. 15:6), and the giver of the Spirit (John 14:26). A new "name" divine then begin to be used, corresponding the fullness of His revelation.
Thus we see that, despite all the biblical theology is based on a correct use of language, we will need at the end of our efforts, seek a theological understanding of the language and not the name of GOD. In fact, the Ten Commandments are this kind of theological explanation of the meaning of the name of YHWH, because they start with the definition of the redemptive act of YHWH (20:2) and continuing with an expression of His moral nature. Perhaps the most significant addition was the defining YHWH as a "jealous God", jealous much to punish as to fulfill His covenant (20:5,6) To this we can compare the self -. Subsequent proclamation of the divine name to Moses (34:5-7), where "name" is understood in terms of love and judgment, and where the "zealous" nature of God is emphasized again (34:14).
III. GOD that is holy
God is holy . Place where He has revealed himself to Moses is holy (or rather, becomes holy) because of this revelation (3:5). This is the first time that the adjective "holy" is used in the Pentateuch, although the concept is already in Genesis (cf. Gen 28:17). Later, "saint" would be one of the adjectives commonly used to describe the nature and being of God himself, especially in Leviticus (cf. Lev 11:45). Without going into philological arguments, the basic idea of the Hebrew root seems to have been "put apart "and therefore" different "from common things.
Canaanite For this concept could not have the slightest moral connotation.
Titles A goddess of fertility called Astarte, worshiped in Egypt, was "Qudshu" (holy) and name given to the cultic prostitutes, strictly forbidden in Israel (Lev. 19:29), literally "holy" means.'s "separatism" or "difference" of God in relation to man, however, is not only a distinction of levels of existence .
GOD of Israel is different in His moral nature: "holiness" in Israel therefore has moral content. That is why He will reveal Himself in the "ten words" which are not a moral and intellectual development, although intellectual content. Continuous knowledge of God by Israel after their deliverance from Egypt, would eventually be a moral experience that gradually deepened;. instead of intellect, consciousness is that Israel was continually challenged Thus it is that in the new covenant, God "reveals" His ways to babes and "hides" the wise (Mt 11:25), did no difficulty in understanding a moral imperative, however difficult it is to obey Basically, our stumbling blocks are not intellectual but moral;. the root of our opposition to God is located at our will.
As God as "holy," as "different", anything associated with Him, and devoted to His service, is part of this feature. If an inanimate object (such as the anointing oil) that holiness may mean that it is forbidden to common usage (30:32) .. however Holiness can to communicate the idea of some mysterious danger in the case of physical contact (19:12,13) ​​Since the holiness of God a moral character, be "holy people" (as Israel was called to be 19: 6) meant to undergo very strict moral requirements. . Exodus Out of these requirements are presented ostensibly: "Be holy because I, Yahweh your God, am holy" (Leviticus 19:2) This statement can be made ​​even more succinctly, the motivation to fulfill a moral command can simply be "I am YHWH your God" (Lev. 19:3). The fact YHWH be holy dispensation additional explanations;.'s New relationship, introduced by grace makes inexorable moral demands
Within the book of Exodus itself, it can be said that all the "book of the covenant" (about 21 * 23) is a tentative definition of what it means to be "people of God", a "holy nation." Holiness, therefore, in the deepest sense, is a definition of the nature of God as He expects to see reflected in His children. Is this concept of divine holiness which, in turn, is reflected and portrayed in the construction of the Tabernacle, with the "Holy of Holies" in his innermost part and the metals and other materials used in its construction decreasing in preciousness as were becoming more distant from the center (the Holy of Holies). If the law was the verbal expression of the holiness of God, the Tabernacle was a visible parable that holiness.
would perhaps be accurate to say that the whole concept of sin offering (29:14), essential to the religious practice of Israel, comes from this concept of holiness of God, understood in terms not merely rituals but moral. This, however, is considered more thoroughly in another division of the text.
IV. GOD who remember
YHWH is also the God who remembers (2:24). Specifically, He is the God who remembered His "covenant with Abraham" and the other patriarchs. This does not mean, of course, that God is able to forget (except with respect to forget as a metaphor to describe his forgiveness of sins;. cf. Is 64:9) To say that God "remembers" is an anthropomorphism (or more accurately, one antropopatismo) to express the immutability of God. In it there is nothing arbitrary, anything you learn about Him based on His relationships with men in the past will be valid for current and future relationships. This is in marked contrast to the gods of paganism, which shared every whim and common men who brought them to tantrums. This divine constancy, and it only makes possible the continuous development process. According to this principle Israel will measure all its subsequent history, understanding all future events in terms of the Exodus. This principle will be the measure of their hope in the dark days of the future.
GOD, in turn, will order Israel to remember what He did for the nation through the alliance. Thus, Israel would receive the assurance that His gracious purpose for the nation would continue. Moreover, this constant reminder will be like that sting and spur, forcing the people to keep His commandments (20:2). It has been said, and well, that just this "remembering" can unite the gospel and the law, Israel observes the law because it "remembers" the gospel of salvation.
structure In Hebrew thought "remember" means "action", this also applies to God and Israel. And, again, this is nothing new. The Scriptures tell us that "God remembered
Noah "(Gen. 8:1), that is, God has acted to demonstrate Noah perfect compatibility of His character. If Noah was once again the grace of GOD showed itself compatible (Gen. 6:8), as presented compatible towards Israel in this situation. Accordingly, to say that God "remembers" is to say that He repeats His acts of saving grace to His people Israel, rather after time, fulfilling way, His promises, and showing His self - compatibility.
ago here, however, an even deeper thought: God Remembers His now come to the real heart of the book of Exodus and his "alliance." theology, because the covenant made ​​by God with Israel at Sinai (24:3-8) dominates not only the thought of this book, but all subsequent Israeli thinking. Whenever we mention the "Old Testament", ie, the Old Covenant, unconsciously agree with this fact. In fact, later in the story of Israel, the covenant made ​​at Sinai eclipsed to the point that the Abrahamic covenant is scarcely mentioned except the time of the exile (Ezekiel 33:23,24). In the text of Exodus, however, the entire redemptive movement that culminates with the covenant made ​​at Sinai is only the fulfillment of divine promises based on the Abrahamic covenant (3:15-17). Beyond doubt, the entire biblical account of salvation history emerges in terms of promise and fulfillment: it is this fact that gives depth and historical roots to the Sinaitic covenant, since, to bestow it, GOD is "Remembering" His covenant with Abraham and, in a sense, reiterating it. According to Paul, the covenant made ​​with Abraham was actually deeper and more fundamental than the covenant made ​​with Israel at Sinai (G1 3:17).'s the first covenant, and not the last, that Paul uses as an illustration of justification by faith. Whatever the case, the "Old Covenant" provided the terminology for the "new covenant" prophesied by Jeremiah (Jer 31:31), whose introduction, when Death of the Messiah, was symbolized by Christ at the Last Supper (1 Cor 11:25).
Needless to emphasize how important the term "alliance" as a theological category used in both Testaments. Expressions such as "the blood of the covenant", "the sacrifices of the covenant" are fundamental to understanding the plan of God and of Christ's work, since the alliance was usually sealed with the blood of a victim. No doubt the "alliance" was a common way of expressing mutual obligation at the time of the Exodus. Ranged from The term relationships between individuals (Gen. 21:32) the relationships between communities (Joshua 9:15), and can be used even . metaphorically to non-human (Job 31:1) elements There is some debate as to whether "alliance" have been 'or not, originally a commercial term, the word certainly included the sense of our term "contract" and . covered subjects that could be purely secular (Gen. 21:32) Some religious or secular nature of alliances were made ​​between equals;. others, such as Israel, were between an upper and a lower
Parallel (non-religious) closest the "covenant" between God and Israel is the "suzerainty treaty" (unilateral) signed between a monarch and a subjugated nation,. he graciously puts under his sovereign protection particularly enlightening examples are among the treaties signed by the kings of . Assyrian and Hittite King describe, first, what he had done for the people,. then after that demonstration of grace, present, by law, the requirements and obligations involved can see here the beginning of a understanding of the relationship between grace (the origin) and law (the result). Such ancient "suzerainty treaties" usually contained, at its end, a list of blessings and curses upon those who followed or broke the alliance, respectively. The similarities between this structure and format of the covenant made ​​with Israel at Sinai or even the Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 15:7-21) are obvious, but should not be given too much emphasis. For example, YHWH does not appear in the law of Moses as "king" of Israel, though this concept is probably involved in 20:5,6, and has been permanently expressed
later (Judges 8:23). Accordingly, it is unlikely we have here is a "borrowed", but a new covenant relationship with God, expressed in a terminology already known to the Israelites as part of their cultural heritage.
There is another issue to consider under this title. God is "the God of your fathers," declaring himself "the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob" (3:6). We have here, first, a statement of compatibility and continuity of divine revelation, on the other hand, is the affirmation of the eternal duration of the relationship that God establishes with man. The first truth is evident in Genesis, when Abraham's servant prays to the God of Abraham, not just as a name for God, but describing the divine character of faithfulness and mercy shown to Abraham and claiming yourself on the exercise of these attributes ( Gen. 00:12). The second aspect is even more significant for the latest biblical theology. In the New Testament, on the lips of Christ, this truth becomes an argument in favor of what we might call "personal immortality" of the patriarchs (Matt. 22:31,32).
By establishing a relationship with them, God ensured that relationship the character Standing by itself ensures that the continued existence of the human participants. In New Testament terms, eternal life is to know God (John 17:3), not simply because the nature of our present life is completely changed when entering a new relationship with God, but because this relationship due to the nature of him with whom we interact, never ends.
To simplify to the maximum, if God still "remembers" the patriarchs, they must still exist. Here, then, although primitive and self-unnoticed, is the beginning of the revelation of the afterlife. Ultimately, it is this relationship that the psalmist sought with hope (Psalm 17:15) and Job in despair (Job 19:25-27).
At the broadest level, the emphasis on divine relationship with the patriarchs emphasis on nature is essentially History of Israelite faith.
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were seen as real men who had had a real experience with God. It was this same stubborn insistence on historicity that made ​​Israel look back at the events of the Exodus, again and again, later in its history. Israel knew the grace and power of God demonstrated in the Exodus were real facts, their very existence as a nation showed it. So too, in the New Covenant, Lucas stubbornly insists on the historicity of the facts of the Christian faith (Luke 1:1-4). Herein lay the great strength of the Israelite creed, he was not a philosophy, nor a form of mysticism, or initiation, not even a religion based on feelings. It was a fact-based religion. It was essentially a cohesive interpretation of experiences
and historical, though the man could deny the interpretation, could not deny the story. So Israel could see God as a "God who acts" and wait with confident faith that He acted again, according to the word of His promise.
V. GOD acting for salvation
Unlike the gods of Canaan (1 Kings 18 27) God is a living God (Deuteronomy 5:26), a God who acts Above all, He is a God who acts for salvation. the message "come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians" was of God to the Israelites through Moses (3:8). This passage introduces the biblical concept of salvation, an area that later biblical passages owe much to the book of Exodus in terms of language and graphics. Of course the idea of salvation is already present long before the Exodus, the stories of Noah (Gen 8) and Lot (Gen. 19), for example. In both cases, the word used in relation to God is not "save" but "remember", although, as already mentioned, "remember" has an essentially active meaning. "Making climb" (3:8) and "take "(3:10) are also virtually synonymous with" save ", given the historical circumstances in which Israel stood, slaves in a foreign land. "Ransom" is another synonym that has a rich history in both Testaments, but the main verb (gã'al), in comparison, is very rarely used in Exodus. (For a more complete review, see the Commentary Tyndale's book Ruth, authored by Leon Morris.) The verb is used frequently in transactions of properties and thus acquired the sense of "pay ransom" (although this sense belongs more properly to a rarer verb pãdâh). Exodus 6:6 and 15:13, however, use this verb (gã'al) to describe the redemptive activity of God to Israel. The word literally means "take the role of rescuer", as exemplified in the book of Ruth and defined in Leviticus 25:25. The verb is used very frequently in the second part of Isaiah to describe the future redemption that God would give your people from captivity in Babylon, seen as a second Exodus (Isaiah 43:1). As the first time, Israel, His people, was a slave in a strange land, unable to break free, and it was the purpose of God free him from . Slavery
Salvation, whatever the word used, is therefore seen as a characteristic activity of GOD;. Their very nature is to succor the oppressed and helpless In New Testament terms, this activity is seen as part of "forensic" justice of God (Isa. 11:4). Throughout the Law, His active care in favor of widows, orphans, foreigners and captives receives special attention (22:21-24). Furthermore, since God cares for the destitute, Israel must also take care of them (22:21,22). The remembrance of divine salvation that Israel had experienced, and the memory of his own helplessness before that salvation should, in turn, make Israel a "savior" of others. Doing so is actually known to God, and how to know Who He is , and demonstrate this knowledge in a practical way.
GOD, was not enough to deliver His people from bondage in Egypt:. saviors in a succession of acts He guided, protected and nurtured through the desert And even this was not enough: God finally GOD is acting to give His redeemed a rich heritage. This was promised to Abraham (Gen. 12:7) and again promised Moses 3:8, the first of several passages that describe the abundant wealth of the land of Canaan. Hence arises the growing awareness of the blessed inheritance that God had prepared for His elect, the great theme of Deuteronomy in the Old Testament such blessings, mostly remain related to this world, although they are gradually related to an ideal future (Isa. 11.: 6-9.) In the New Testament the inheritance
promised becomes a matter of spiritual treasures (1 Peter 1:4), but that does not mean that inheritance has become less real part of salvation, or less manifestation of the power that God must act on behalf of His people. Yet, despite the varied nature of the redemptive acts of God, was always the experience of the Exodus that Israel is reported as the supreme example. If we have to isolate a moment, crossing the Sea Red (14:30,31) was the turning point, because only then became aware that Israel had passed from death to new life.
There are some who see the great triumphal hymn of Exodus 15 echoes an ancient mythological battle of creation, that God triumphs over his enemy, Yam, the sea monster.'s poem contained in Chapter
15 can be used already pale metaphors drawn from such mythological narrative, poetry as it has done through the centuries, but here the sea is not . enemy, as in the myth is only an agent of God, fulfilling His will:.'s not even personified true enemy is the obstinate Pharaoh (15:4), the man who tried to oppose God (5:2), and thats about it that God triumphed gloriously.
Pharaoh represents the zenith of human power, turned against God and His people:. thus his fall is an appropriate and constant symbol of inability to fight against God or subvert the divine plan
is why . too that the crossing of the Red Sea has become such a fitting symbol of the redemptive act of God for Israel The crossing was to Israel what the resurrection of Christ is the Church, the sign that the powers of darkness were defeated decisively and that salvation was now assured and right (14:30). well as supplications to God in the New Testament are based on His ultimate act of redemption in Christ (Rom. 8:32), so also in the Old Testament made supplication to God is based on what he has accomplished in Exodus (Judges 6:13), his greatest redemptive act in favor of Israel. This is also what makes the crossing of the "Sea of Reeds" as appropriate symbol of baptism in the eyes Paul (1 Corinthians 10:1,2): the waters of judgment is passed and now we enter the portals of salvation.
However, if we extend the analogy of the New Testament a little more, we see that the resurrection was only the proclamation of the triumph of God, the true act of salvation occurred on the cross (Col.
2:14-15). So too, in the days of the Old Testament, was the night of the Passover that marked the true redemption of Israel from Egypt (12:29-32) and so Easter should be recognized as one of the "mighty deeds" divine. Though in other parts of the Old Testament, there are frequent allusions to Israel's deliverance from Egypt, the small number of direct references to Easter is amazing. It provides, however, rich symbolism for the New Covenant, mainly through the concept of the death of the paschal lamb, which Paul understood to have been fulfilled in Christ. Probably the same idea, at least partly, is present in the title "Lamb of God" given to Jesus by John the Baptist (John 1:29). Whatever the exact day on the calendar, the death of Christ on the cross certainly falls within the general context of the Passover, perfectly demonstrating the fulfillment (Luke 22:8). In fact, the Last Supper, the symbol of His death (Luke 22:1), if it has not been a true Passover meal, with all inner certainty had connection with the ceremony.
Though the Passover sacrifice was not in the full legal sense , much less a sin offering (these aspects of Christ's work fulfill the sacrificial system of Israel, not the Passover), was associated with a gory ritual as sacrifices (12:7). Besides, had not only a "apotropaic" (in order to avoid evil), but also an element substitute appearance, provided that a victim must die, the eldest of the family wanted to stay alive (12:13). Can also say that Easter was a propitiatory ceremony as she pulled away the wrath of God (expressed in terms of the angel of death) of Israeli homes. All these details enable the Easter special way to be a biblical category that facilitates
understanding the cross (1 Cor 5:7), the greatest redemptive act of God for man, through the blood of Christ.
VI GOD acting on trial -. God is a God who acts, but his activity is not limited to salvation.
He is also a God able to anger, even with His own servants (4:14). This is an important of all theology, both the New (John 3:36) as the Old Testament aspect. Certainly it is an anthropomorphism, but an anthropomorphism which corresponds to a reality, a reality so grand as the grace of GOD, this anthropomorphism is the immutable divine attitude of judging sin (and therefore sinful, except they repent) .
Characteristically, the Old Testament does not refer to attitudes, but the acts. The wrath of God is demonstrated in the trials which He sends upon them that "hate" (20:5) as He demonstrates His "loyal love" to those who love Him (20:6) When God's wrath is kindled against His own people, He would have consumed even Israel (32:10)..
Execution of the rebellious Israelites by the Levites after the making of the golden calf (32: 28), and the plague that followed (32:35), were visible manifestations of God's wrath against His own people. Plagues of Egypt and the destruction of the army in the Red Sea were signs of His wrath against His enemies.
This fact is more . typical of Israelite faith one time seen as an interpretation of historical events and Implementation plague happened and apostasy against God had happened before:. undisputed that was
to interpret these events, Israel just apply the same standard to the disaster to triumph If you applied. one was God's salvation, the other was divine punishment, the principle should be valid both for one and for the other Both are aspects of the judgment of God, the divine activity that brings salvation to the oppressed and the oppressor punishment (Lk 1:. 52). So while Israel through the Red Sea in safety, the war chariots of Pharaoh are destroyed by the waters (14:28,29). As in all his subsequent history, Israel interprets each victory in terms of redemptive activity GOD likewise interpret all their calamities in terms of the wrath of God was this system of interpretation the only reason why Israel could accept his subsequent history without losing faith in GOD The calamity was not meaningless:.. had she their place in God's purpose for Israel, even if the purpose of disciplining the chosen people.
The wrath of God, however, is never arbitrary, as the wrath of Baal could be: one can say for sure what's no longer angry, and we can determine what will please, and as the story progressed revelation These areas became more and more clear. It is usually the obstinate opposition to him causing his wrath, if his enemies (14:4), while the infidelity is what He causes His wrath in the case of His own servants (32:7-10). These two principles are expressed succinctly in the "ten words" (20:5,6) It is because of this aspect of the character of God that He might if self -. Describe God as a "jealous" (20:4 and 34:14 ) or a "jealous God", to use a word less susceptible to misunderstanding. saved because He loves, and He punishes His people because the only link that love was violated. In the final pages of the Old Testament, the implications of the alliance between YHWH and Israel are described in terms of the marriage by
Hosea, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Though the metaphor of marriage dictates itself is not used in Exodus to describe the relationship between God and His people, the embryo of this idea is already present. So sin against God can be described as adultery (Hosea 2:2), unfaithfulness to the marriage bond. Given that marriage is a covenant form in the Hebrew mindset (Malachi 2:14), this metaphor is extremely appropriate. What causes the wrath of God is a disruption of personal relationships, and since God has revealed Himself primarily in moral terms, this break is customarily neglect or inability to fulfill His moral precepts, whose obedience is the greatest test of love (20: 6). Indeed, the whole moral law can be summed up in both the Old and New Testaments, in terms of love for God (Deut. 6:5) and love of neighbor (Lv 19:18).
Nowhere in Old Testament wrath of God is emphasized more than in the context of divine revelation at Sinai (19:16-19), at the exact moment that the grace of God he was more alive in the minds of His people. Therefore, much of the symbolism Current used later to describe the divine wrath finds its origin in the events related to the Sinai. fire, darkness, the mountain trembling (Psalms 18:7-15) - all are used Even the New Testament times it was still happening as can be see in Hebrews 12:18,19.
Moreover, in a sense, even this aspect of the wrath of God was part of His glory (00:17): God is glorified by His acts, whether of salvation or judgment.
In the face of the wrath of God, it is not surprising that Israel has terrorized (20:19). This fear was both recognition of the true nature of God and the sinfulness of Israel. When the holiness of God and the sin of man were placed side by side, a backlash was inevitable. Accordingly, his fear became, in its purest expression, the pious and reverent "fear of the Lord," the fear of disobedience and its consequences. This kind of godly fear is recommended at 20:20. From there, the "fear of the Lord" becomes synonymous with a life of full obedience to Him in the Old Testament (Psalm 111:10). From this perspective, there is no contradiction between virtue that the Old Testament calls " fear of the Lord "and the New Testament principle that" perfect love casts out fear "(1 Jn 4:18). This becomes even more apparent by the fact that the same God who is able to anger offered Israel the means by which His wrath can be avoided, He has no pleasure in punishing but save.
VII. The God whose wrath can be avoided
YHWH is also the God whose wrath can be diverted (32:30-34). Repentance often very superficial, as Pharaoh, you can avoid it as well as can intercessory prayer (8:8). The sin offering can also divert it (29:10-14), although Leviticus is more rich in examples of the latter. The supreme example of God's wrath being avoided is that of noble intercessory prayer of Moses after the episode of the golden calf (32:32), in which he identifies himself with his people, it is willing to participate to the punishment they deserved (compare Paul in Romans 9:3). In other religions, people also believed that God's wrath could be appeased by prayers and offerings: for them, however, had such prayers spell or quantitative effectiveness. If we examine the content of the prayer of Moses (32:11-14) we see the uniqueness of Israelite faith. Moses makes his appeal to God based on His nature, revealed at the recently happened redemptive act and promise of blessing to Israel. Many years before that, in his prayer for Sodom, Abraham had done the same (Gen. 18:22-33). This is not a pardon extorted someone who is not willing to grant it: it is the claim of loving purpose that God had already revealed. When we read further on the revelation of YHWH is His very nature, we see that He is not a God who rejoices with the wrath and punishment: His delight is in showing mercy (34:6), as is evident in other parts of the Old Testament (Ezekiel 18:23). The offer intercessory prayer (sometimes symbolized by the incense, Nm 16:46) in favor of the sinful nation is considered an act of "atonement" (32:30). Even a cash offer to the sacred treasure atonement can be considered ( 30:16) a propitiatory offering, accept a ransom for life. This leads us directly to the next aspect.
Though, as we said above, the wrath of God can be "propitiated" through intercessory prayer, the normal use of the term "propitiation "(usually an intensive form of the Hebrew verb Kapar, which means cover) is related to animal sacrifice seen as a sin offering. Exodus contains several instances where such a sacrifice, and especially the shed in such sacrifices, blood is presented as" propitiation " in favor of Aaron and his sons (29:35,36), or even in favor of inanimate objects such as the altar (29:37). Thus, the principle is clearly stated in Leviticus (Lev. 17:11) is fully implicit in Exodus. The spilled blood, symbolizing life sacrificed, is what makes "atonement" on the altar and deflected the wrath of GOD. 29:36 In the "propitiation" is directly related to the "sin offering", so the meaning the term "propitiation" is clear, however, "propitiation" or "expiation" (as the term is sometimes translated) also appears in Exodus present the concept of "consecration" for a particular use or task (29:37) . As the Old Testament progressed, the concept of propitiation through a sin offering continued, eventually becoming a rather complex system to the time of the Temple in Jerusalem, extending to all areas of life. Much remains little doubt as to the fact that the concept of sacrifice for atonement arises from the principle of substitution, as found from the time of Abraham (Gen. 22:13). Other religions also had the idea to appease the wrath of their gods through sacrifices, but this concept was radically different in Israel. For every Israeli and every sacrifice originated in God (Lev. 17:11). was he who ordered and accepted the sin offering which made ​​possible the propitiation, as he himself had provided the ram to Abraham (Gen. 22:8) This offer, as the prayer of Moses in behalf of his people, was not extortion of forgiveness to a God who is not willing to give,. was a means of access . Him for Himself graciously bestowed Moreover, the sacrifices were not automatic effect: a good illustration is the fact that the individual could not commit sin "boldly" (lit. "with outstretched hand," 15 Nm: 27-31), ie, a deliberate and open rebellion against God, thinking that later could always buy forgiveness through sacrifice. For such an individual the sacrifice was worthless. And even within the context of the Old Testament saints already perceived that was not the sacrifice itself that assuaged the wrath of God, but a contrite heart that sacrifice was to represent (Psalm 51:16,17).
's most interesting use of the word "provide" in Exodus is the noun derived from it, kappõret (translated as "mercy seat"), used as the name of the covering of the ark (37:6). Saying that some commentators translate the word simply as "cover", based on the literal meaning of the root, "cover", is nothing more than be true to the facts.
If, however, the word actually means "place of propitiation" or "place where sin is covered" (as the Greek term hilasterion seems to suggest), here we have another expression of divine interest in changing his wrath about the man.'s Ark was that special place where God promised to come out to man (25:22) and where He promised them speak. Such "hedging" the ark was seen as the throne of God Himself (Ps. 99:1 ), covered by the wings of the cherubim (25:20), the place (if we can use the word reverently) the very presence of God. Without any doubt, this was the reason why the ark was considered the symbol of the presence of God. The profound value of Ark sees the place it occupied in the "holy place" inside the Tabernacle (40:21) and its role in guiding Israel, whether it was during their march in the wilderness (Num. 10:33) or in front of battle (Num. 10:35). Accordingly, in the heart of the concept of the presence of God with Israel lay the idea of atonement and forgiveness, offered and guaranteed by God for His people so sinful.
For a brief discussion of the real meaning of kappõret word, see comment (in 37:6); whatever the answer in linguistic terms, it does not affect the broader theme of God's willingness to forgive At best, it would be the only one linguistic support and theological truth. perfectly discernible throughout the Old Testament.
VIII. The God who speaks
It is a noteworthy fact that, on the first occasion on which the phrase "the living God" occurs in the Old Testament * it is related to verbal communication from God (Deut. 5:26). This is one of the ways He shows that is a living and active God. YHWH is a God who reveals Himself through the Word. Exodus 2:4-22 is an example of this truth, that needs to be re-stated in our days, in order to correct the current imbalance theological. Our ancestors placed great emphasis on the concept of "God speaking" our generation probably exaggerated emphasis on understandable reaction, the complementary biblical concept of "God who acts." What we are both saying is that God reveals Himself to man in word and deed, that is, an act interpreted: as is said often in biblical theology "act more interpretation = revelation." In the Bible, the word often precedes the act: first comes the promise and then compliance. Speaking in the abstract, saying that He is the God who speaks is the simple statement of the principle that the revelation of God is always intellectually comprehensible and communicable: both can be understood by the receiving as communicated to others. That was what made ​​possible the future sequence of prophets in Israel, with his interpretation of the history of the nation. In fact, the vocation and experience of Moses at the burning bush set the standard for all subsequent prophetic vocations (3:1-6). When any subsequent prophets stated "Thus saith the Lord" (Amos 1:3), was stating the same truth stated by Moses, not in terms of some abstract principle, but of his own experience, practical and personal. He communicates the word because YHWH heard before, himself, the word of the Lord (16:23).
's concept of "God speaking" presents a profound way throughout the book of Exodus. It is true that at Sinai all Israel heard the voice of God, symbolized by thunder (19:19), and trembled before him (20:18). The supreme characteristic peculiar relationship between Moses and God is that He "spoke" face to face with him, openly (33:11), unlike the indirect way in which eventually if communicated with others. When the grand alliance is celebrated in Sinai , its foundations are the "words" of God (24:8). In fact, what we call the "Ten Commandments" was for the Israeli "Ten Words" of divine revelation (20:1), just because they are the words of divine revelation is to become mandatory. Moreover, being a God who speaks, He is a God who takes pleasure in declaring His own nature (33:12-23). The beginning of this process lies in the revelation of the name Yahweh to Moses in the burning bush (3:14,15). Nowhere, however, it is clear that the great self-declaration of the name of God (ie, His nature) in Horeb (34:6,7), in response to Moses' prayer that God will reveal to him his paths, and Moses could know Him (33:13). The word of revelation proceeds therefrom is profoundly true. No man can experience God as He is in all His splendor, yet God can be known through His passing marks, for what he did ("thou shalt see my back", 33:23). So GOD is proven by the experience of Israel that will be proclaimed, the same God that Israel had yet to encounter in the future.
Such self-disclosure is, in a sense, a reiteration, and in another, an extension of earlier revelation contained in the name YHWH . For example, construction type "idem per idem" found here, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and who I pity me" (33:19), is not only an explanation of the name YHWH but also has the same grammatical form of the previous explanation "I am what I am" (3:14). issue of The deliberately restrictive nature of this construction is discussed in the commentary. It certainly emphasizes both the activity of God as His complete sovereignty in the exercise of this activity.'s remarkable that the divine activity come primarily defined in positive terms, ie literally "grace and mercy" (33:19). That Israel has certainly had proved in their historical experience. The opening sentences of more complete statement recorded in the following chapter describe God in the same way (34:6,7) and the final part of verse 7, however, shows the negative aspect of destruction ("though not clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity ... "). This aspect is necessary to a complete representation of who God is. The similarity Exodus 25:5,6 checked very frequently in both respects. It is no coincidence that in both examples, this "self-kerygma", this "self-declaration" of God, is in the context of the commandment to His people. In Exodus 20 the context is moral while in chapter 34 context is called "Ritual Decalogue", which deals mainly with religious feasts of Israel. Decalogue In both cases, YHWH has the right to legislate for being and Who is to be what proved to be the life of Israel.
This divine self-declaration continues to increasingly deeper levels along the Old Testament revelation. For the believer, however, is the coming of Jesus Christ, the "word" of God incarnate, that makes complete and end defining the nature of God. If God finally revealed her most perfect way through His Son.
IX. GOD that is transcendent
YHWH is a God that can not be directly experienced in its fullness by mortal man. The classic expression of this truth is found in 33:20: "no man shall see my face and
.. shall live "(The contradiction between this passage and 00:11 is only apparent; see comment) This same idea is presented in 3: 2, the use of the phrase "the Angel of the Lord", best translated as "the messenger of YHWH. It is not here a discussion of biblical angelology, especially as it deals with an aspect of the spiritual reality that transcends our present experience. Genesis 16 :7-13 can serve as an example of the use of the same expression on earlier occasion as well, with the same ambiguity as to whether the author be using the term to describe an angel spiritual being created by God and submissive to Him or as a substitute reverent the word "GOD". Old theologians used to explain these angelic visitations as "theophanies", appearances of God Himself on earth. Indeed, many of them used to see in such forward-called "Christophanies" appearances of the pre-incarnate Christ. While we can not completely agree with your point of view, we may well see here an illustration of the same spiritual principle which was fulfilled when "the Word became flesh" (John 1:14). Would explain the curious alternation in which the angel appears to times act independently (3:2), and sometimes seems to speak and act in the person of God himself (3:4). Whether, however, consider the expression "angel of the Lord" on such occasions as a reverent circumlocution for the name of GOD, or as a separate spiritual entity, in both cases the terminology serves to highlight the theological problem of how to reconcile divine transcendence with the active involvement of God in history - and in fact, His control of history in order to accomplish His purposes. This antithesis, though well spoken in Exodus, is not peculiar to him, we find already in the beginning of the Bible. On the one hand God was transcendent and all-powerful (Gen. 1:1), the Spirit and not the flesh (Gen. 6:3), the One whose thoughts were far above human thoughts (Gen. 6:5), on the other hand, he was endowed with full personhood and could be described boldly in anthropomorphic terms (Gen. 3:8), and cared about the smallest details of everyday life.
Introducing "angels" was one of the ways in which, in the providence of God, both aspects could be asserted simultaneously while God can not be experienced directly, we can know something of His presence He is a God of "glory;".. typical expression of Exodus is "the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud" (16:10). The Hebrew word kãhôd (literally meaning "weight," and metaphorically "dignity") is one of the words used to denote the presence of God as manifested to men. usually brings with it not only the concept of the splendor of God, but Its also something fearful grandeur, as on this occasion. Mortal man should fear to witness the glory of God, as Israel feared to see, simply reflected the shining glory on Moses' face when he returned from his period of fellowship with God at the top of Sinai (34:39-35). As far as we can determine, a certain brightness was associated with that glory. 00:17 In the divine glory on Sinai is compared to a "consuming fire" that appeared in Amid the black cloud. Surely a similar idea was conveyed by the word "Shekinah", of more recent origin (literally "dwelling"), used to describe the visible symbol of the presence of God in the Tabernacle or Temple. The link between "glory" and "housing" is the fact that the "glory" of God "inhabits" the Tabernacle after it is completed (40:34); outside this, in fact, the sole purpose of its construction. Sometimes, however, God reveals His glory to show His favor, as in this case, on other occasions, however, it demonstrates His wrath (J6: 10). This is the natural result that we have said above ("fire" is a double symbol) and can be compared to the double divine activity in salvation and judgment. God receives glory in and through his people (Isaiah 49:3), but also receives glory destroying Pharaoh and his army (14:4). The word glory can be seen, therefore, a virtual synonym for the presence of God as He is in all His divinity, this revealed the presence and recognized, the term glory is undoubtedly a periphrasis to be God's own . The word seems to be used the same way in the New Testament, which is why we see in Christ the very glory of God.
X. The God who lives among his people
YHWH will live among His people (29:45). This is sometimes called the "theology of presence" and is constantly hit a key on the book of Exodus. Already mentioned the subject to discuss the "glory" divine but the issue is much broader. The basic promise of God to Israel was "My presence will go with you" (33:14). In contrast, Moses' prayer is that, if the presence of God not keep up Israel, He will not lead them to Canaan under any circumstances (33 :. 15) In the eyes of Moses, what distinguished Israel was the presence of God that accompanied them.
This "theology of presence" is so important that a review of Exodus as that of Henton Davies considers the central thought of the book. Initially, the call of Moses is a confrontation with the presence of God (3:5). It is the presence of God that enables Israel to cross the Red Sea and at the same time destroys the Egyptians as well as the presence of God who guides and protects Israel in the wilderness (14:19-20). When YHWH passes in front of Moses and "proclaims the name of the Lord" (34:5), what happens is a proclamation of the nature of that presence. Entire process of concluding the covenant (24:1-11) and giving the law ( 20) is a guarantee of the reality of their presence. Finally, the sole purpose of building the Tabernacle is the presence of God is experienced among the people of Israel (25:8) itself. Maximum glory of completion of construction of the Tabernacle comes when the Israelites have visible proof that the presence of God with His people actually happened (40:35).'s book ends with the confident certainty that this very presence will no doubt continue to follow with Israel, will lead the people to possess Canaan and give you the "rest" (33:14) as the fulfillment of the promise made ​​to Abraham (Gen. 13:15).
As already mentioned, this was emphasized by the presence of the Tabernacle own design and particularly symbolized by the ark, which was the most holy place, in the exact center of the camp of God's people. In future days in the history of Israel, the "static" symbolism of God dwelling in Jerusalem (Ps. 9:11), especially in the Temple of Solomon (Ps. 20:2), replaced the "dynamic" symbolism of those early days when a Mobile tent and a portable ark "localized" to a lesser extent the divine presence there was possible abuses in both cases:. Hophni and Phinehas thought that the presence of GOD was automatically guaranteed by the ark (1 Sam 4:3) as the Jews, centuries later, consider automatically guaranteed by the Temple in Jerusalem (Jer. 7:4). Luckily the sanctuary at Shiloh should have made ​​them think otherwise (Jer. 7:12). Yet despite the abuses and false understandings, the most venerated promise of the Old Testament was always the promise made ​​by God and that He would live among His people (Isa. 7:14), and the coming of Jesus Christ's prophecy of the future "Immanuel" (God with us) finally become reality. Thus, the presence of God is directly, not indirectly, among men forever (Rev. 21:3), the type and illustration have passed because reality has already been done in Christ.
Dear teacher, by the grace of GOD we started a new year and a new quarter. We will study the second book of the Pentateuch, Exodus. We will have the unique opportunity to learn more about liberation of Israel from Egyptian bondage and its path through the wilderness towards the Promised Land. The commentator of the lessons is the pastor Gilberto Antonio, Theological and Doctrinal Consultant of CPAD, member of the House of Letters Emilio Conde, theologian and writer. That the Almighty use each lesson for the edification of his students. May GOD bless you.
OBJECTIVES - After this lesson, students should be able to:
describe the main aspects of the book of Exodus.
Outline the biographical aspects of Moses.
Knowing that the precipitate zeal of Moses and his escape did not prevent the divine purpose in your life.
Teacher, for this first lesson we suggest that you create a general outline of the book of Exodus. Play the scheme following page on chalkboard or make copies for students. Explain that the word exodus means departure. Moses is the author of the book and, according to Pentecostal Bible Study, his purpose in writing this book was to offer his people a permanent record of the historical and redemptive acts of God.
Discuss with students some important concepts are emphasized by Moses throughout the entire book, for example, the release of death, slavery and idolatry.
Date and place
Approximately 1450-1410 BC It was written in the desert, during the pilgrimage of Israel, somewhere in the Sinai peninsula.
Register the events of Israel's deliverance from Egypt and its development as a nation.
I. Israel in Egypt (1.1-13:20).
II. Israel in the desert (12.1-18.27).
III. Israel at Sinai (19.1-40.38).
Egypt, Goshen, River Nile, Midian, Red Sea, Sinai Peninsula and Mount Sinai.
Reports more miracles than any book of the Old Testament.
Key Verse
Exodus 3.7,10.
Key people
Moses, Pharaoh, Miriam, Jethro, Aaron
Key places
Egypt, Goshen, River Nile, Midian, Red Sea, Sinai Peninsula and Mount Sinai.
Bondage: Slavery, servitude of the Hebrews by the Egyptians.
Summary of Lesson 1 - The Book of Exodus and the Captivity of Israel in Egypt
1. His purpose.
2. Slavery.
3. Cry for deliverance.
1. . The Israelites in Egypt
a) fruitful, and increased abundantly, if (Acts 9:31;. Luke 14.22,23)
b) "Strengthened greatly."
c) "The land was filled with them."
2 A baby is rescued from death. .
3. The mother of Moses (Exodus 6:20).
4. The daughter of Pharaoh (Exodus 2.5,6).
1. Moses is taken to the palace (Exodus 2:10).
2. The preparation of Moses (Ex 3.9,10).
3. The escape of Moses (Ex. 1-22 2.1).
SYNOPSIS OF TOPIC (1) - Moses is the author of the book of Exodus and, according to Pentecostal Bible Study, it was "written so that we had a permanent record of the historical and redemptive acts of God, by which Israel was delivered from Egypt" .
SYNOPSIS OF TOPIC (2) - Moses was born during the period when Pharaoh ordered all newborn Israelite boys were killed. However, Moses' parents were God-fearing and managed, with His help, to save the boy.
SYNOPSIS OF TOPIC (3) - Moses spent his youth in the royal palace. As the son of an Egyptian princess, he attended the most prestigious universities. Moses was being prepared by God to free his people and lead him to the Promised Land.

We will then read a brilliant study prepared by Pb Alessandro Silva.
One of the doctors of their law, to which they give the name of the scribes and of the holy things which pass between them by the great prophets, told the king that at that time a boy should be born among the Hebrews, whose virtue was admired worldwide therefore increase the glory of his nation and humiliate Egypt, and whose reputation would be immortal. The king, alarmed at predicting and following the advice of him who made him this warning, issued an edict by which commanded that they should drown all Hebrew male children and ordered the midwives of Egypt to observe exactly when women were giving light, because they do not trust the midwives of their nation. This edict also ordained that those who dared to save or create some of these children would be punished with the death penalty, along with the whole family.
A Jew named Amram, highly esteemed among his, seeing that his wife was pregnant, was very concerned, because the decree that would exterminate their nation. Then appealed to God, beseeching him to have mercy on a people who had always adored and to dismantle the persecution that threatened them from total ruin. GOD, touched by that prayer, appeared to him in a dream and told him to wait: He remembered the piety of the people and their ancestors; would reward them now, as had rewarded those, who was by this consideration that had the multiply from Abraham, when he set off alone from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan, whom he lavished goods and became a fertile woman, and his successors, which awarded whole provinces: Saudi Ishmael Caveman the sons of Keturah and the land of Canaan to Isaac, they could not without ingratitude and wickedness even without forgetting the happy successes in the war by an alliance with him, that Jacob's name had become known as much for happiness in which he lived as the bequeathed to his descendants as a birthright, and why, having come to Egypt with seventy persons only, their posterity multiplied, reaching number six hundred thousand men; tranqüilizassem that because it would have taken care of all the general and his in particular, that the son of his wife was pregnant was the boy whom the Egyptians feared both the birth and because of whom were dying all the boys of the Israelites, that he would, however, fortunately the world, without being discovered responsible for the cruel wanton, he, against all hope, would be raised and educated and deliver his people from bondage, that made as big eternizaria his memory, not only among the Hebrews, but among all nations of the earth that , by his merits, his brother would be educated to become a high priest, and all his descendants would be honored with the same dignity.
Miriam, the sister of the boy, by order of his mother, went to the other side of the Nile to see what would happen.
As the birthplace float at the mercy of the waters, Termutis, daughter of the king, who was walking along the river, saw it and ordered some of which accompanied that swimming would get him.
The princess immediately ordered them look for a love. Come one, but the child did not suck and refused all other who brought you. Miriam then pretending there to meet by chance, the princess said:. "It is useless lady who mandeis call other love, for they are not the same nation that this child tomardes If a Hebrew love, maybe he does not feel aversion ". Termutis approved the idea and told him to go look for one. She immediately went home and brought Jochebed, whom nobody knew, for the love of the child, which gave him suck.
Moses, ie "saved water" as a sign of a strange event because mo in Egyptian language, means "water" and ISES, "preserved".
It was the seventh from Abraham because Amram, his father, was the son of Kohath Kohath was the son of Levi, Levi was the son of Jacob, Jacob the son of Isaac, and Isaac was Abraham's son.
I received him in my arms, I decided to adopt it and declare it offer as successor, because you have no children. "With these words, she placed between the arms of the king, who received him with pleasure and to oblige her daughter, narrowed the arms, putting him the diadem on the head. Moses, as a child, who has fun, took it and threw it to the ground, stomping on him.
This action was considered a bad omen, and the lawyer who had predicted would be disastrous as the birth of that child to Egypt was so nervous that he wished to kill him immediately. "Behold, your majesty," he said, turning to the king , "this boy, which God makes us know that death must ensure your peace.
Once the boy, raised and educated in this way, was old enough to be able to demonstrate their courage, committed acts of bravery that did not allow more doubts about the veracity of what had been predicted, ie he would raise the glory of their nation and humiliate the Egyptians. Here's why: The border of Egypt was devastated by the Ethiopians, who are close to him. The Egyptians marched with an army against them, but were defeated in combat and withdrew with dishonor. The Ethiopians proud of such victory, thought that was cowardly not to enjoy good fortune and began to boast of being able to conquer all of Egypt. And there came, for many places. The amount of loot seized and the fact that they have not found any increased resistance to them the hope of a happy result in the company. Thus, advanced to Memphis, reaching the sea. The Egyptians, recognizing too weak to withstand such great force, sent to consult an oracle, and by secret order of God, the answer he received was that there was only one man - a Hebrew! - Which they could expect help.
The king had no difficulty in judging, by these words, that Moses was Hebrew in question, to which heaven intended save Egypt, and asked the daughter to make him general of the whole army. She consented and told him that he thought so provide a great service to the king. However compelled him while the promise with an oath that they would not do him any harm. The princess, not being content with just witness his extreme affection for Moses, also could not stop - bitterly - ask the Egyptian priests if they were not ashamed of what they had treated as an enemy and wish to take the life of a man who were now forced to ask for help.
One can imagine with what pleasure Moses obeyed the orders of the king and the princess, who were so glorious you. And the priests of both nations had it, for different reasons, the same joy. The Egyptians hoped that after winning the enemies under the command of Moses, easily find occasion to kill him treacherously. And the Jews longed for that same reason, leaving Egypt and get rid of slavery.
This great general, stand in front of the army, was soon made wonder by his own prudence. Instead of marching along the Nile, crossed through the lands, in order to surprise the enemy, who would never think that he would reach them by such a dangerous path, due to the amount of snakes of various species that live there, many of them do not exist anywhere else, and not only are fearful for their venom, but are horrible to look at, because, having wings, attack men rising in the air to shoot them. Moses, to guard against them, had put in cages some birds called ibises, which are domesticated, friendly man, and mortal enemy of snakes, and these not the least fear that the deer.
I will say nothing more about these birds, because they are not unknown to the Greeks. When Moses arrived with his army to this region so dangerous, and so let the birds passed without danger. Then the Ethiopians surprised, gave them battle and scattered them, making them lose hope of becoming masters of Egypt. But as great victory has not retained its intent: them entered the country, took several cities, plundered them and made great slaughter. So glorious results of such revived the courage of the Egyptians that they would be able to undertake all under the command of so excellent general. The Ethiopians, on the contrary, had before their eyes the image alone of slavery and death.
The distinguished general urged them to Sheba capital of Ethiopia, which Cambyses, king of Persia, after called Meroe, the name of his sister. There he besieged them, although the city was regarded as impregnable, because in addition to their large fortifications, was surrounded by three rivers: the Nile, the Astape and Astobora whose route is very difficult. Was thus situated on an island was defended by no less water that surrounded on all sides by the virtue of its walls and its defenses. The dikes that preserved the flooding of the rivers still third defense served when enemies pass the other.
Moses was upset to see that so many difficulties together made the conquest of the city almost impossible, and his army began to become boring because Ethiopians do not dare to give them more combat.
Tarlis, daughter of the king of Ethiopia, having seen him perform from the walls, a robbery, deeds of valor and extraordinary courage, was so full of admiration for his bravery, which reerguera sentiment of the Egyptians and did tremble Ethiopia before victorious, he felt the wounded heart of love for him.
With the ever increasing passion, sent to offer her hand in marriage. He accepted the honor, with the condition that she hand over the city. The promise was confirmed with an oath, and after the treaty was made in good faith on both sides, he gave thanks to God for so many favors and returned the victorious Egyptians back to their homeland.
And so, Pharaoh consented to the death of Moses, and she would be inevitable if this had not discovered the intention of the Egyptians and absent at the appropriate time. Moses fled to the desert and thereby saved himself, because the enemies could not imagine that he would take such a path. How to find anything to eat, he was plagued by extreme hunger, but endured with patience and, after having been very, arrived at noon, near the city of Midian - name that gave him a son of Abraham and Keturah - at the edge of the Red Sea. Being very tired, sat down at the edge of a well, to rest, and this fact gave him the opportunity to show its mettle, paving the way for better luck.
Josephus. Hebrew history from Abraham to the fall of Jerusalem. Publisher CPAD.
Egypt is one of the oldest human civilizations. Its history is almost as old as man himself. Some historians believe, therefore, have been the Nile Valley the cradle of mankind. But, through the Scriptures, we know to be Mesopotamia the first home of our more remote ancestors.
Napoleon Bonaparte, in his campaign for the Middle East, was ecstatic with the ancient Egyptian civilization. When contemplating the colossal pyramids, exclaimed to his men: "Soldiers, from the height of these pyramids, forty centuries behold." The majesty of Egypt has a lot of interest for our spirit. How not to admire the monumental achievements of the forgers of the Egyptian civilization? The presence of Egypt in the Scriptures is very strong. For this reason, we need to better understand the history and geography of this legendary and mysterious country. Given the limited space we have, we can not deal with depth of Egyptian culture. It is up to the reader, however, delve into the subject and seek new
information in an appropriate bibliography. Just us. for now, some general data on the once mighty empire of the Nile.
We can not date accurately when the first settlers to the Egyptian territories. The further back in time, plus the timing becomes inaccurate.
We know, however, that the first inhabitants of this region were nomadic. After a life of arduous pilgrimages and uncomfortable, they began to organize themselves into small states. These tiny and meaningless political units known as prefectures, were gathering up over the centuries, until they form two major kingdoms: Upper Egypt in the south, and Lower Egypt in the north. Both were located, respectively, in the Nile Valley and Delta of the same river. Between both regions there was a strong contrast. Their gods were different, as were different, too, their dialects and customs. Even the philosophy of life of these people were marked by visible antagonism. Egyptologist Wilson declares: "Throughout the course of history, these two regions differed and were aware of their differentiation Whether in ancient times, as in the modern, the two regions speak very different dialects and also see life with different perspectives.. "
About that time, Idel Becker writes: "In pre-dynastic period, the development of Egyptian culture was almost entirely indigenous and internal There was only some elements of Mesopotamian influence evident:. Seal cylinder, monumental architecture, certain artistic motifs ..., and perhaps the very idea of ​​writing at this time, there are some basic progress in the arts, crafts and sciences worked up the stone, copper and gold (tools, weapons, ornaments, jewelry) There were potteries; glazing; systems . irrigation was started forming the Law, based on traditional practices and customs -. customary laws "
1 - The unification of Egypt
As a result of their many differences, Upper and Lower Egypt and violent rending wars fought for a long time. These constant skirmishes weakened both kingdoms, making them vulnerable to external attacks. Aware of the futility of such conflict, Menes, King of Upper Egypt conquers Lower Egypt. After some administrative reforms, this monarch (to some historians, a legendary figure) unified the country, established the first dynasty and became Tiflis, the capital of his vast empire.
The unification of Egypt occurred, according to rough calculations, between 3000-2780 BC During this same period, Egyptians began to use written and a calendar of 365 days.
Unified Upper and Lower Egypt became the most flourishing and powerful empire of antiquity. The kings began construction of the great pyramids, which served them as tombs. Because of these architectural raptures, received the nickname "big house" - Pharaoh. So Egyptian culture reached considerable proportions.
At the end of the Old Kingdom, which covers the period 2780-2400 BC, the power of the pharaohs began to decline. The end of this era of glory is marked by riots and disorders, caused by the governors of prefectures.
A fever of independence is spreading throughout the country. Grows, increasingly, the power of the nobility, the influence of royalty decays continuously. Taking advantage of this generalized chaos, several Asian and Negroid tribes invade the country.
Thanks, however, the intervention of the Theban Pharaohs, Egypt can reorganize itself, at least until the hicsa aggression.
2 - The invasion of the Hyksos
Notwithstanding the security brought by the princes of Thebes (Dynasty 11 *) and the socio-political achievements of the people, Egypt begins to suffer incursions of an embattled band of Asian pastors. Even the international prestige of the pharaohs would be enough to make the Egyptian defensible borders.
These invaders, they dominate Egypt for 200 years or so are known as Hyksos. They begin their domination in 1785 and are expelled around 1580 BC Idel Becker, with great care, talk to us about this troubled time: "This is the most confusing time and discussed the history of ancient Egypt: a period of invasions and The Hyksos internal chaos -. conglomerate of Aryan and Semitic people, invaded Egypt (through the isthmus that linked him to the Sinai peninsula), defeated the armies of Pharaoh and dominated much of the country had horses and chariots (with wheels. ),.. weapons and bronze (or maybe even iron), better finished and easier to handle than the Egyptians All this explains its military superiority and their military triumphs The Hyksos were perhaps escaping pressure the Indo-European invaders (Hittites, Kassites and mitanianos) on the Fertile Crescent. "
With the Hyksos, Becker adds, must have entered the Hebrews in Egypt.
3 - New Empire
With the expulsion of the Hyksos, the Egyptian Empire reborn with great vigor. With Ames I, pharaohs become imperialistic and warlike. Thutmose III, for example, conquered Syria and forced the Phoenicians, Canaanites, Assyrians to pay him tribute.
The Egyptian expansion, however, collided with the interests of the powerful Hittites, absolute masters of Asia Minor. On occasion, the famous pharaoh, Ramses II made enormous efforts to overcome them. How could not his intent, signed with the Hittite kingdom a peace treaty, which lasted for many years.
It was during the New Kingdom (1580-1200 BC), the Israelites began to be enslaved by the Pharaohs. 4 - Decay After the New Kingdom, Egypt began to suffer successive interventions: Libya, Ethiopia, Indo-European, Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Roman. In general, this nation, whose past was so glorious, belonged to the Roman Empire for 400 years, the Byzantine Empire for 300 years. In the VII century AD, is under the protection of Muslims. From 1400 becomes Turkish possession. In the nineteenth century, is under the Franco-British custody. Earlier this century, it becomes English protectorate.
In 1922, however, winning their independence. Today, however, is merely a reflection off of its former glory.
Netta Kemp Money describes ancient Egypt: "Egypt of antiquity in its shape resembled a lotus flower (plant important in Egyptian literature and art), the end of a winding stem that has left and slightly below the own flower, a flower bud. A flower is composed of the Nile Delta, the winding stem is the fertile land that extends along said river, and the button is the lake of Faiyum who receives the excess of the annual flooding of the Nile " .
The modern-day Egypt is shaped like a square. Located in northeast Africa, is limited to the north, with the Mediterranean Sea, to the east, Israel (and also with the Red Sea); south, with Sudan, to the west with Libya. Its area of ​​almost one million square kilometers, 96 percent are made up of arid lands. Its population of 45 million inhabitants, is forced to live with the 4 per cent of arable land.
Was located in Upper Egypt in the south of the current Egyptian territory. This region, called by the Hebrews Path'ros (Jr 44.1,15), consists of a narrow valley flanked by cliffs of limestone formation. Lower Egypt, for its part, was located in the North and its most fertile area is in the Delta.
Egypt, however, would not exist without the Nile. This river is the longest in the world, with a distance of 6400 km with its ebb, fertilizes vast tracts of land, making abundant plantings possible. Herodotus, quite rightly, said to be a gift from Egypt Nile.
In his book Geography of the Bible Lands, said Pastor Aeneas Tognini: "Without the Nile, Egypt would be a Sahara - terrible and uninhabited The Nile afforded riches to the pharaohs who could live nababescamente, building ornate temples, magnificent monuments, palaces high. luxury giant pyramids and maintenance of well-armed armies, not only protecting Egypt, but took in war new regions. Egyptians had no need to see if the clouds would bring rain or not. guarantee them the Nile irrigation and their gave them abundant water and certain crops. fact is that a drought could bring poverty to land, as happened in the time of Joseph If it were filled beyond the limits, the waters could devastate cities, leaving people homeless and harm crops. But both droughts and floods were rare. The Nile was then as it is today, the life of Egypt and the main factor of its multiple organizations, some simple and others complex and sophisticated. "
The Egyptians left an indelible mark of greatness in history. From the pyramids to the scientific and technological achievements, were masterful. Considering, for example, modern architects who continue to contemplate, with great admiration, the pyramidal monuments built by the pharaohs.
Thus Halley describes the Great Pyramid of Cheops:. "The greatest monument of centuries occupied 526.5 acres, 253 square meters (137 today), 159 m high (148 hoje.) It is estimated that it employed 2,300. .000 stones 1 meter average thickness, and weighing 2.5 tons. built from successive layers of limestone blocks crudely carved, smoothed outer layer of granite blocks carved and delicately adjusted. exteriors These blocks were removed and employees in Cairo in the middle of the north side there is a passage, 1 m wide by 130 high, which leads to a chamber dug into solid rock, 33 meters below ground level, and just 180m below the apex;., there are two other cameras between this and apex, with paintings and sculptures descriptive of the achievements of the king. " The ancient Egyptians also stood out in mathematics and astronomy. There are more than four thousand years, when Europe wallowed in its primitiveness, the sages of the Pharaohs already dealt with formulas to calculate the areas of the triangle and the circle, and also the volume of spheres and cylinders.
Souto Maior tells us with more details about the scientific breakthrough of the ancient Egyptians: "Despite not knowing the zero already solved this time algebraic equations.
Their astronomical knowledge allowed them to organize a calendar based on the movements of the Sun The division of the year into twelve months of thirty days is of Egyptian origin, the Romans adopted it and is still retained with minor modifications. Egyptian medicine was also surprisingly early. They came to make small transactions and the ability to treat bone fractures. Sensed the importance of the heart and the observation of the therapeutic properties of certain drugs, acquired some knowledge of pharmacodynamics. "
Israel's relationship with Egypt dates back to the Patriarchal Age. Pressed by famine and other hardships, Abraham and Isaac went down to the land of the Pharaohs, which suffered serious constraints. The first and greatest Hebrew patriarch, for example, was about to lose his wife, whose beauty embeveceu the king of that nation. Were it not for divine intervention. Sara would not be counted among the illustrious mothers of the Israeli people.
In his old age, Abraham receives this grim revelation from the Lord: "know, for certain, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years, but I . judge us, which will serve, and afterward they will come with large farm And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age K the fourth generation they hither:. because the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full " (Gen. 15.13-16).
1 - Joseph Prime Minister of Egypt
Stephen, a deacon in the early church scholar, tells us how Joseph came to Prime Minister of Pharaoh.. "And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt, but God was with him and delivered him out of all .. their taxes, and gave him favor and wisdom before Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who made him governor over Egypt and all his house there came over all the land of Egypt and Canaan, and great hunger taxation: and our fathers found no food. But when Jacob heard that there was grain in Egypt, he sent out our fathers the first time. And the second time Joseph was made known to his brothers, and his race was revealed to Pharaoh. Joseph sent for his father Jacob and all his kindred, seventy-five souls "(Acts 7.9-14).
Despite their lowly slave, Joseph became prime minister of Pharaoh. And through him, God saved all the seed of Israel. Were it not providential ministry exercised by that intrepid Hebrew, see the Abrahamic progeny would be in big trouble. His story is one of the masterpieces of humanity.
Joseph came to Egypt in the twentieth century BC At that time, according to historians, the Hyksos ruled the country. Also being Semites, the new lords of the land had no difficulty in showing his magnanimity to the Hebrews. Showing up liberal and generous, offered the Israelites the region of Goshen, where the Abrahamic lineage evolved greatly.
2 - Moses
Stephen continues to tell the story of the Israelites in Egypt:
Approaching, however, the time of the promise that God had made to Abraham, the people grew and multiplied in Egypt, till another king arose, which knew not Joseph This, using cunning against our race, and mistreated our fathers, to the point of making them cast out their children, lest they multiply. At that time Moses was born, and was exceeding fair, and was created three months in his father's house. And being foundling, took him to Pharaoh's daughter, and raised him as her son. And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds.
"And when he was full forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren the children of Israel. Seeing one of them suffer, he defended him, and avenged him who was oppressed, striking the Egyptian. And he supposed that his brothers understood that God was giving them deliverance by his hand to, but they did not understand And the next day, they fought, was seen by them, and urged them to peace, saying. Ye men, ye are brethren: why do ye ? wrong one to another And what did his neighbor wrong thrust him away, saying, Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us Wilt thou kill me, as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?
"And Moses fled at this saying, and became a stranger in the land of Midian, where he begat two sons. And when forty years appeared to him an angel of the Lord in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, in a flame of fire from a sarçal. When Moses saw it, he marveled at the sight: and as he drew near to observe, came to him the voice of the Lord:
. "I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob And Moses trembled, and dared not look And the Lord said to him: Take your sandals off your feet, because the place where you stand is holy ground:.'ve seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their groaning, and am come down to deliver them Now therefore come, and send thee into Egypt.
"This Moses, whom they refused, saying, Who made thee a ruler and a judge has sent God as ruler and a deliverer by the hand of the angel who appeared to him in sarçal.
This man led them out, having worked wonders and signs in Egypt, in the Red sea, and in the wilderness for forty years. This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel: ü Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren a prophet like me; shall listen to him "(Acts 7.17-37) Israel left Egypt in the fifteenth century BC After the Exodus, and Israel. Egyptians return to face in the time of kings and the so-called inter-biblical period. recently, with the independence of the modern state of Israel, the Jewish forces were faced with several Egyptian times. antagonism between the two peoples is ancient. However , the future of these nations will be peace and glory: "In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians to the Lord. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth. For the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel my inheritance "(Isaiah 19:23-25).
Claudionor de Andrade. Biblical Geography. Publisher CPAD.        
The story of Israel's exodus has figured for centuries in the history of the Hebrews and is accompanied throughout the history of the Church as a framework for interpreting the history of salvation. And it is not without reason, because one can not imagine a serious study of the Word of God without looking into the Pentateuch, and, more precisely, how God freed his people from slavery and led to the Promised Land.
This chapter deals with the origin of Moses, the man that God chose to bring freedom to the people of Israel. We take into account that God often using human instruments for His glory is manifested, and we can study the examples of men and women used by God for great things over the Holy Bible.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 5.
I have seen the affliction of my people. The people of Israel called the attention of God, as we have seen in Ex. 2.25. Was reached the right moment to act. The Promised Land should move to the power of Israel after the exile in Egypt, and after that the guilt of the Canaanites reached its culmination. See Ge. 15:13,16. God cares for His people. Surely this is the central message of the gospel. God so loved that He gave (John 3:16), and a universal provision was made (I John 2:2). See in Dictionary Mercy 0 item (Merciful). GOD knew the plight of his people, and could not tolerate it. See Ex. 3:7-9 and cf. Exodus. 2.24. And so, the release was planned.
Taskmasters. Here is a different from what is used in Exodus word. 1.11, where our English version says readers ". But both terms imply a cruel treatment. The "taskmasters" were not only foremen · They had become the oppressors,.. Was with them and that slaves had to treat every day as God knew the Israelites suffered physically, 0 as their minds and felt distressed as his spirit felt desolate. seemed abandoned to a fate worse than they could bear. But the sovereign will of God was about to reverse all this.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 314.
1. Its purpose.
The exodus is the crucial event in the history of Israel. It was the powerful liberation wrought by God, to bring all the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt and lead you to the Promised Land. This departure from Egypt and the consequent migration to Canaan under Moses' leadership was marked by many miracles, and resulted in the establishment of Israel as a nation in covenant with God, which was his own theocratic governor.
Within the Pentateuch, Exodus makes a link to the story of the Hebrews is chained so that there is continuity in the Mosaic narrative. A panoramic look at the Pentateuch shows us that in Genesis God creates the world, humanity, promises a Savior and leads Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to a relationship with Him The end of the book of Genesis talks about Joseph, son of Jacob, who will to Egypt as a slave and becomes governor, with an administration ruled in the fear of God and common sense. Joseph brings his brothers and his father to Egypt to have a more peaceful place to live, and the book closes with the request of Joseph the Israelites to take off their bones that land, because God would visit them and take away from there . Next, the book of Exodus shows the slavery of the Hebrews in Egypt and divine deliverance by Moses, a character that will appear in other books of the Pentateuch. The book of Leviticus is in charge of teaching the people the value of communion with God, the sacrificial law and the work in the tabernacle. The book of Numbers covers the pilgrimage of the Israelites in the desert, and the book of Deuteronomy shows the speeches of Moses to the people before entering the Promised Land.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 6-7.
Scope and purpose
The book of Exodus is the book of redemption. The Greek name "Exodus" (lit. "exit") describes here as God brought the children of Israel from slavery in Egypt, but we understand that the Redeemer redemption not only free his people from slavery but also puts these people in particular I can respect same, making it His own purchased possession, his "peculiar" (19:5).
The beginning of the book, therefore, describes the great deliverance of God's people, Israel, which culminates in Easter and foreshadows even greater redemption accomplished at Calvary. From this point the book goes to the concert set on Mount Sinai, where God declared that Israel was His people, giving them the Ten Commandments, while in turn they accepted Jehovah as their God, pledging to obey him. This concert was the foundation of their national existence, which the new covenant (1 Cor 11:25, Heb 8.6-13) form the antitype, with the call of the Church. Finally, the story of the establishment of the tabernacle and its worship provides the basis on which the life of the redeemed people in his relation to God, needed to be maintained. On the basis of the new covenant fellowship with God and Christ. The tabernacle and its worship, therefore, provide many types and foreshadows Christ (see, eg Hb 8.5;. 9.1-11; 10.1).
The references in the New Testament fully justify our position that sees Christ as the "fulfillment" of this book. The recorded miracles we see "signs" of the divine operation (cf. Jn 2:11), the covenant at Sinai we see a precursor of the new covenant, and worship of the tabernacle we see a "shadow of good things to come" (Heb 10.1).
DAVIDSON. F. New Bible Commentary. Exodus. pag. 2.
The Exodus is the theological and most significant historical event of the AT, because it shows the magnificent action of God in behalf of his people, an action that led them from slavery to freedom, from fragmentation to unity, a people with a promise - the Hebrews - to set a nation - Israel. In the book of Genesis are the introduction and purpose, then followed by all the subsequent revelations. Old Testament. A record that is both an inspired commentary and a detailed exposition. Ultimately, the exodus serves as a kind of exodus promoted by JESUS ​​CHRIST, so that it becomes a significant event both for the Church and for Israel.
MERRILL. Eugene H. History of Israel in the Old Testament. Publisher CPAD. pag. 49-50.
2. Slavery.
The book of Exodus speaks of slavery. This expression brings to us the idea of ​​a person who is under the absolute control of another by force, and that person works without any right. Given the advances in the social sphere that modern man got through democratic means, talk about slave labor in our day is an absurd thing, although it exists in many places in the world. One can not think of a job that is unpaid (except a volunteer), nor can people imagine working without time to rest and still being hampered rights as the rest and proper nutrition. But in the ancient world, slavery was a widespread practice. A person might fall into this situation if it were sold by relatives or if it was a prize of war, or even if he could not pay debts. What is certain is that it was an embarrassing and humiliating situation for men and women who found themselves enveloped by it.
The book of Exodus tells of the beginning of the Hebrew people from slavery at the hands of the Egyptians. A king arose in Egypt, and this monarch had no pleasure in recalling the history of that nation. He knew not Joseph, and this expression may indicate that this new king did not know that Egypt previously gone through a period of extreme trial, when food became scarce, and that if it was through the instrumentality of Joseph, son of Jacob, Egypt probably would not continue.
God was merciful unto the Egyptians, giving them an administrator like Joseph And long after, Egypt decides to return the deliverance given by José using the Hebrews as slave labor. That was a very bad show gratitude, but overall this is the way human tendency: we forget the goodness of God and become masters of the blessings that He has graciously given.
The oppression of the Egyptians against the Israelites was so great that God said. "For I am come down to deliver them from the power of the Egyptians" (Exodus 3.8, NKJV) The term "power" shows the degree of oppression with which the Egyptians treated the Jews, considering them as if they were nothing disposable.
"Any Egyptian or Egyptian could enter the houses of the Israelites, stop them in the streets or anywhere where they would pick up the newborn child, giving him the sex and if it was a boy, taking it from her mother and go straight to the River Nile to throw the baby, so he drowned or were eaten by crocodiles v.. "
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 7-8.
Ex 1.14 The idea of ​​tyranny is reiterated (see previous verse). There was forced labor in the fields, in construction projects. There were hard bondage, and personal rights were not respected - what always happens in all oppressions. Typically, the story has been written by members of the upper classes, spinning around the doings of kings and princes, these stories are full of violence, hatred and oppression. But the book of Exodus tells the story of ordinary people who were being oppressed, and, instead of praising the oppressors, tell the truth about them.
"The Egyptians created a good variety of ways to oppress the Israelites, because they forced us to dig large number of river channels to 0, or to erect walls to their cities or soft to hold up the Nile waters, preventing the river extravasasse beyond its banks. Also forced the Israelites to build pyramids, with 0 who wanted to wear them, "said Josephus Antiq. (Ilv.ii. ch. ix. see. 1). gave Cf. 11:10 .
Philo explained that some Israelites worked with clay, molding it into bricks, while others gathered and transported straw and other materials to be mixed to the batter. Some children of Israel served in homes, other fields, other digging canals, and others carrying loads "(De Vita Mosis, 1.1 par 608.).
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 306.
The Jewish rabbis call the Book of Exodus "Book of Names" (or "These are the names") because it starts with a list of names of the sons of Jacob (Israel) who brought their families to Egypt in order to escape the famine that ravaged Canaan (Gen. 46).
God used the experience of Israel in Egypt with the intention of preparing them for the special task that should meet here on earth: to be witness to the true and living God, write the Scriptures and bring to the world the Savior.
Blessing (vv. 1-7). During the years that Joseph served as deputy ruler of Egypt, his family was highly respected and even after Joseph died, his memory was honored by how the Egyptians treated the Hebrews. God fulfilled the promises of the covenant he had made with Abraham to bless his descendants and make them greatly multiply (Gen. 12:1-3, 15:5, 17:2, 6; 22:17). At the time of the Exodus, the Hebrews had more than six hundred thousand men twenty years old or more (Ex. 24:37, 38:26) and if we add to this number the women and children, have a total of about two million people, all of whom were descendants of the family of Jacob Undoubtedly, God had fulfilled his promise!
However, a new Pharaoh was not pleased with the rapid multiplication of the Hebrew people and thus took steps to control it.
First measure - Affliction adults (w. 8-14). God told Abraham that his descendants would go to a foreign country and there would be enslaved and mistreated country but promised to release them by his power when the time was right (Gen. 15:12-14). GOD Egypt compared with the iron furnace (Deuteronomy 4:20) that his people would suffer, but your experience in this furnace would turn Israel into a powerful nation (Gen. 46:3).
Over the centuries the Hebrews dwelt in Egypt (Gen. 15:13; Exodus 12:40, 41), passed by the change of several Egyptian dynasties. But that new Pharaoh would be so ignorant as not to know about Joseph and his family and trying to destroy "the people of the children of Israel"? Seventeenth dynasty of hicsos4 also was of foreign origin, like the Hebrews, so that probably sympathized with Israel. However, the Eighteenth Dynasty was Egyptian, and expelled the foreign rulers of Egypt. It may have been that dynasty that began the persecution of the people of Israel.
Why the Egyptians wanted to make life so miserable Hebrews? Israel was a source of blessing to the earth, as Joseph had been before them (Gen. 39:1-6), and was not causing problems. According to the reason given by Pharaoh, the presence of so many Jews was a risk to national security, since they were foreigners and, if there was an invasion undoubtedly become allied enemies. However, whether Pharaoh realized or not, the real cause of the conflict was announced in Genesis 3:15 enmity between the people of God and the children of Satan, conflict persisting in the world today.
Not found in the records of history no people that has suffered as much as the Jews, but the entire nation or ruler who persecuted God's people were punished for it. After all, God had promised to Abraham: "I will bless those who bless you and curse those who curse you" (Genesis 12:3). God fulfilled this promise in the way he handled with Egypt and Babylon in antiquity and Stalin and Hitler in modern times. God is longsuffering to observe the nations who persecute his chosen people, but there comes a time when his hand of judgment hanging over their oppressors.
The Egyptian taskmasters, "with tyranny, did serve the children of Israel" (Exodus 1:13), forcing the Hebrew slaves to build cities and work in the fields. But the blessing of God has made the people of Israel continued to multiply, which startled and angered further their Egyptian overlords. It was necessary to do something to keep Israel under control.
Wiersbe. Warren W. Expositor. AT Vol I. Publisher Central Gospel. pag. 234-235.
Cruelty engendrada (1.11,13,14). The worldly wisdom knows inventing cruel methods. The king wanted to weaken the power of the Israelites, breaking them to be will as a group and leading them to become like the Egyptians. In accordance with subsequent assessments (Js 24.14; Ez 20.7-9), some Israelis fizeram exatamente Issus. Under normal circumstances, such methods I would have fulfilled the aim of the king.
The taskmasters (11) were general supervisors tyrants whose methods were famous. Probably some of these services were heads of Israel (5:14). "There is [...] place to think they ruthlessly made them work and at the same time obliged to pay them exorbitant tribute." 5 Cities treasures were "warehouses cities" where they were stored provisions and armaments.
The tasks for the Israelites were very bitter with hard bondage (14). Apparently, the field work refers to irrigation projects or the care of the flocks of government, or possibly lead bricks for building locations. Slavery was as cruel as man could make it without inflicting death.
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 142.
The new Egyptian kingdom According to 1 Kings 6:1, the Exodus happened about 480 years before the foundation of the temple of Solomon. In fact, Solomon began construction on its fourth year, ie, in 966 BC, so that, according to a normal and a serious approach hermeneutics of biblical chronological data, the Exodus occurred in 1446 BC Before presenting detailed arguments in favor of that date, we will stop for a while in the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, according to the traditional date, so the time frame that the exodus happened.
As noted in Chapter 1, the eighteenth dynasty was founded by Ahmose, responsible for the expulsion of the Hyksos. And he's likely to have been what is described in Exodus as the new king who knew 18a and 19a Table 4 dynasty of Egypt.
Amósis 1570-1546
I Amenotepe 1546-1526
I Tutmose 1526-1512
Tutmose II 1512-1504
Hatchepsute 1503-1483
Tutmose III 1504-1450
Amenotepe II 1450-1425
Tutmose IV 1425-1417
Amenotepe III 1417-1379
Amenotepe IV (Akhenaten) 1379-1362
Semenca 1364-1361
Tutankhamun 1361-1352
For the 1352-1348
Horembeb 1348-1320
Ramses I 1320-1318
Setos I 1318-1304
Ramses II 1304-1236
Merneptá 1236-1223
Joseph (Exodus 1:8). This does not suggest that he has not known Joseph personally, but only your Grace no longer extended to the descendants of Joseph - the Hebrews. He had, after all, expelled the Hyksos, a fairly akin to the Hebrew people, and may have been afraid that the rapid multiplication of these could constitute a serious threat to their recent government and authority.
He or his successor, Amenotepe I (1546 - 1526), ​​was responsible for political repression that followed in those days. This included the reduction of the Hebrews to slavery with hard labor on public construction projects (Ex 1.11-14), a plan which was also implemented by Ahmose. When this project failed, followed by a decree promulgating the genocide of all Hebrew males to be born (Ex. 1:15-16).
This decree may be issued by Amenotepe or, what is more likely, for Tutmose I, according to the historical reconstruction promoted this work.
Assuming the date 1446 BC for the exodus, we can determine the date of birth of Moses, a fact of great importance at this juncture. The Old Testament states that Moses had the age of 80 just before the Exodus (Ex. 7.7), and 120 years old at his death (Deut. 34.7). Since his death occurred at the very end of the wilderness period, we can date it in 1406. A simple calculation then gives the year 1526 for his birth. Therefore, Moses was born the same year as the death of Pharaoh Amenotepe. And to emphasize that one can not expect complete accuracy, but our dates for the chronology of the New Kingdom, as well as all the dates we use are the same ones used by the Cambridge Ancient History, a publication launched by unbiased scholars, academically recognized as authorities the highest reliability. Any adjustments in the dates that increase
or decrease a few years does affect the conclusions proposed here.
Amenotepe was succeeded by Tutmose I (1526-1512), a commoner who had married the king's sister. Probably he was the author of the decree that ordered infanticide because while Moses was in imminent danger of dying, Aaron, who was born three years before (Ex. 7.7), seems to have been exempt. It would not be difficult to admit that the pharaoh who promulgated this policy must have ascended the throne after the birth of Aaron, and before the birth of Moses. In this case, the biblical evidence points directly to Tutmose I.
Tutmose II (1512-1504) married Hatchepsute, her older stepsister. He died very young under mysterious circumstances. Feeling he neared death, ordered the appointment of Tutmose III (1504-1550) as his co-ruler and heir. This ruler who undoubtedly was the most illustrious and powerful among those who lived in the New Kingdom, distinguished himself in many ways. His early years were not very promising was the son of a concubine and had married his half-sister, daughter and Hatchepsute Tutmose II - but eventually came to get remarkable victories in the lands around them, which included no less than 16 campaigns Palestine. However, the first 20 years of his reign was dominated by his powerful stepmother, Hatchepsute. Although prohibited by the culture to become pharaoh, she actually acted as such, and all criteria, can be considered one of greatest fascination and influence of Egyptian history. Undoubtedly, early in Tutmose III, was Hatchepsute who dictated the resolutions, a relationship that surely he hated, but were powerless to oppose. Only after the death of the stepmother, Tutmose III showed any repugnance for her, sending extinguish all and any inscriptions or monuments in his honor.
The general framework of Hatchepsute leads us to identify it as the bold daughter of Pharaoh who rescued Moses. She alone among all other women of her time would be able to go against an order of Pharaoh, and before him. Although the date of his birth is unknown, it was probably several years older than her husband, Tutmose II, who died in 1504, very close to its 30 years. She must have been in his early teens, around 1526, the date of birth of Moses, and therefore with the ability to act in favor of his release.
Tutmose III was underage when he took office in 1504 and younger than Moses. If, in fact, Moses was the son of creating Hatchepsute, there he was likely to be a strong threat to young Tutmose III, since Hatchepsute had no natural children. This means that Moses was a candidate to be pharaoh, having only obstacle as their Semitic origin. It seems to us that there was a real animosity between Moses and Pharaoh. This is clear in view of Moses, after killing an Egyptian, have been forced to flee for his life. The fact that Pharaoh himself considered the issue - which, in another situation, it would be relevant - suggests that this particular pharaoh had personal interests in getting rid of Moses. The self-imposed exile by Moses occurred in 1486, when he was 40 years old (Acts 7:23). Tutmose III was now in power was 18 years, and the elderly Hatchepsute, I would die three years later, was no longer able to refuse the will of her stepson / nephew.
During long forty years Moses remained a fugitive from Egypt, having taken shelter among the Midianites Sinai and Arabia. One reason for such a long exile was precisely the fact of continuing to live and reign of Pharaoh whom Moses had escaped. Only after his death, Moses felt free to return to Egypt (Exodus 2:23, 4:19). Tutmose III died in 1450 and was succeeded by his son Amenotepe II (1450-1425).
According to the chronological acceptable standards in this discussion, this was Amenotepe who reigned at the time of the exodus.
Before leaving Tutmose III, it is essential to note that the biblical account requires a reign of nearly 40 years for the Pharaoh who persecuted the life of Moses, for the king who died in the late Moses in exile media was clearly the same as had threatened almost 40 years before. Among all the kings of the 18th Dynasty, only Tutmose III had such a long reign. In fact, he is the only leader who, throughout the period during which the exodus could have been reigned so long - with the exception of Ramses II (1304-1236). But Ramses preferred by most scholars pharaoh, is usually associated with the pharaoh of the Exodus, not the pharaoh whose death allowed for Moses to return to Egypt. If the death of Ramses had brought Moses back to Egypt, the Exodus must have occurred after 1236, a date too late to be satisfactory.
The Pharaoh of the Exodus
When Moses finally returned to Egypt, he and his brother Aaron began to negotiate with the new king, Amenotepe II, about an Israeli permission to leave Egypt for the purpose of worshiping Jehovah, and finally leave the country permanently. This powerful king led a campaign in Canaan in its third year (approx. 1450) and another in its seventh year, probably in 1446, coinciding with the traditional date of the Exodus. It is hard to imagine that the decimation of Pharaoh's army in the sea of ​​Reeds may have occurred after this seventh campaign and that after such demoralization, a total disinterest in an immediate adventure befell the kingdom, especially to the north.
Our identification of Amenotepe II as the pharaoh of the Exodus is based on two other considerations. First, although most of the kings of the 18th Dynasty has established his main residence in Thebes, just south of the Israelites in Delta, Amenotepe lived in Memphis and apparently reigned at that place for a long time. This put him in close proximity to the land of Goshen, making it very accessible to Moses and Aaron Secondly, evidence suggests that the government Amenotepe not passed to his eldest son, but for the youngest Tutmose IV. This is implied in the so-called "dream stele" information, which was found at the base of the Great Sphinx near Memphis.
The text, which records a dream in which Tutmose IV received the promise that he would one day be king, suggests, as a historian, that his kingdom succeeded "by an unexpected twist of fate, as the untimely death of his brother says more old. " And of course this is impossible to prove, but it is impossible not to speculate if this premature death has not occurred through the judgment of Jehovah that the tenth plague killed all the firstborn of Egypt who were without protection blood of the Passover, "... from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon ..." (Exodus 12:29).
MERRILL. Eugene H. History of Israel in the Old Testament. Publisher CPAD. pag. 50-52, 54-56.
A king who did not know God
"Then there arose a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph, who said to his people. Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we Come, let us wisely to him , lest they multiply, and it happen, coming war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and let the earth "(verses 8-10). Here we see the reasoning of a heart that has never learned to rely on God in their calculations. The unregenerate heart can never do, and so when God reveals himself, all his arguments fall away. Out of GOD, or independently of Him, may seem very wise, but as soon as God appears on the scene, we see that are absolutely crazy.
But why should we allow our minds are in any way influenced by arguments and calculations that depend for their apparent truth, the total exclusion of God? Doing so is, in principle and in accordance with its extension practically atheism. In the case of Pharaoh found that he could rightly judge the various eventualities business of his kingdom: the multiplication of the people, the possibilities of war and the Israelites make common cause with the enemy and leave the country. He could weigh in the balance all these circumstances with unusual wit, but it never occurred to him that God could have anything to do with it. This simple thought, if it ever occurred to Pharaoh, would be enough to throw confusion into all his plans calling them crazy. Now it should reflect what happens ever so skeptical of the reasoning mind of man. GOD is fully excluded, yea, their intended truth and soundness rely on this exclusion. The appearance of God on the scene gives the killing blow across the skepticism and infidelity. By the time the Lord appears, can prance on stage with wonderful demonstration of wisdom and skill, but so look distinguishes the weakest glimpse of the blessed Lord, are stripped of their cloak of ostentatious and developed throughout the their nakedness and deformity.
With reference to the king of Egypt, one can say with certainty that greatly erred, not knowing God nor His immutable designs. Pharaoh did not know that, many centuries before, it was still far from breathing the breath of this mortal life, the word and oath of God, "two immutable things"-had infallibly assured complete liberation and glorious that even people that he, in his wisdom , proposed crushing. All this he did not know, and therefore all his thoughts and all his plans were based on ignorance of this great truth, the foundation of all truth, that GOD IS. Thought, foolishly, that with his wisdom and power, could prevent the growth of those about whom God had said, "will be like the stars of heaven and as the sand which is upon the sea shore" (Genesis 22:17). So your procedure was just madness and folly. The worst mistake anyone can make is to act without relying on God. Sooner or later the thought of God to your spirit will impose itself and then give up the terrible destruction of all their plans and calculations. At best, all that is undertaken without counting GOD can only last this time. But in no way can stretch to eternity. Everything is just human, too solid, bright and attractive it may be, is destined to fall into the clutches of death and abolorecer silence of the tomb. The leiva Valley's cover the greatest honors and brightest glories of man (Job 21:33), mortality is carved into his forehead, and all your projects are evanescent. On the contrary, everything is connected and grounded in God remains forever "His name shall endure for ever: his name will be propagated from parents to children." (Psalm 72:17).
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
3. Cry for deliverance.
The quest for freedom is also one of the topics described in the book of Exodus. Who wants to be stuck is free, and the same happens to those who are being subjected to slavery. No wonder that Moses wrote:
It happened after many these days, the dying king of Egypt, that the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob, and God looked upon the children of Israel, and God acknowledged them. (Exodus 2:23-25)
The king decreed that slavery had died, but his successor would maintain that system until God visited his people and freed from that situation. Hold the Israelites in Egypt as slaves proved expensive to Pharaoh and the Egyptian nation.
Here there is a note: although God's people through that tribulation, the Bible tells us that God kept his plan to bring his people to a land where they could live as a nation. For this, God would use Moses as an instrument not only release, but also as a legislator, so that the people could follow appropriate rules for their existence in the new land. God has not lost control of the story. He was just waiting for the right time to act.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 9.
Exodus 2:24 The Abrahamic Covenant. The schedule of God required several events: exile and bondage in Egypt, the sins of the Canaanites would have to reach its peak, so that a divine righteous judgment were to deprive them of their land (Gen. 15.13-16) and Moses would have to serve a period of forty years of exile in the wilderness (Ex. 2:15, Acts 7:30). But once they meet all of these items, the divine timetable pass to the next step: the call of Abraham. And this would take the Abrahamic Covenant to a new rung. View Ge. 15:18 we give the full notes here on that pact. One of its main stipulations was that Israel would have its own parental territory. This would require that Israel be freed from their slavery in Egypt.
"Exodus 2.24,25 is an axis in the narrative. Suppression, slavery and mor you are dominant themes in the passage of Exodus 1.1-2.23. Hereafter, the emphasis will be on the ideas of deliverance and triumph. God, in His sovereign power, was prepared to act in accordance with His promises to deliver and preserve His people "(John D. Hanna, in loc.).
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 311.
Ex 2. 24. GOD ... remembered his covenant with Abraham. Even prior to the vision of the burning bush, the narrator places the deliverance from Egypt in the context of the promise made to the patriarchs. To ancient Israel, throughout the course of salvation history could be summed up in terms of "promise and fulfillment": God promises, Remember GOD, GOD acts savingly.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 59-60.
But God was taking care of her. He heard the groaning of the people and remembered the concert (24). GOD has postponed the release of Israel to Moses and Israel were ready. Moses needed the disciplines of the desert, and the desire for freedom of Israel needed boost. The continued slavery in Egypt united the people of Israel in the desire for freedom and faith that only God could deliver him. God hears the cries of his people, but wait until "the fullness of time" to give the victory. Knew them GOD (25) means "God cared about them" (VBB).
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 145.
1. The Israelites in Egypt.
Moses was born in a poor time to the children of Abraham in Egypt. The book of Exodus begins by stating that "the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly" (Ex. 1:7). This scenario seems very favorable to the existence of a people, considering that the social relations among the Hebrews are described as conducive to demographic expansion. Israelis could marry, have children and raise them, and they grew, they had their children and raised them, and so on.
But in verse 8, the story shows a change in the political landscape of Egypt would bring much suffering to the children of Israel. "Then there arose a new king in Egypt, which knew not Joseph." This verse shows what I call the "beginning of sorrows" for the Jews who lived in Egypt. Until then, there is no indication that they were viewed as a mass slave labor ready to meet the desires of renovations and construction of new structures in Egypt. The Hebrews had their affairs, and to all appearances, not negatively influenced in any social fact of the Egyptians.
But that's not what the new king of Egypt saw. He took power and held that three situations could occur. As Exodus 1.11, a) the Israelites, as a large group of people was growing quite b) he imagined that in a case of future war, the Israelites would associate with the enemies of the Egyptians c) he also understood that in the case of a war, the Israelites would leave Egypt ("Earth rise"), which would bring great frustration to expansion plans and structural reforms of national construction.
We can extract these observations that man without God will seek reasons to justify their evil deeds, and will convince himself and those around him. Pharaoh did not realize that the people of Israel was growing up, was a clear sign of the blessing of God. Moreover, there are no records that Israel had intentions to join other nations in a future war against the Egyptians. But the Bible says that Pharaoh's thoughts were related to harming the Israelites.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 9-10.
Ex 1.7 Great Great Prosperity and Posterity. One of the provisions of the Abrahamic Covenant spoke at great posterity of Abraham, which would enjoy abundance of material wealth. See Notes to Ge. 15:18 as a detailed description of this agreement and its provisions.
Greatly increased. In Hebrew, "swarming," as if they were insects buzzing because of its large number View Gen 7:21 There was extraordinary multiplication,..., And that is precisely what frightened the Egyptians, leading them to subdue the great mass that grew more and more.
Israel had developed, imposing its own identity and its power. There were many young people in the age of military service. The situation had become explosive. The Egyptian hostility had been so aroused.
The land was filled. Ie, the land of Goshen (see about it in the dictionary), the region 0 Pharaoh had given the family of Jacob (Gen. 45.10). She was also called the land of Rameses (Gen. 47.11), that portion of Egypt Pharaoh Ramesses II later developed, building many cities there. The time that has flowed between Ge. 50.26 and Exodus. 1.7 was perhaps a hundred years. A numerous posterity was part of the Abrahamic Covenant since its original release (Gen. 12:1-3). The nation of Israel would be formed; receive its own territory, and then you would be conferred upon their national constitutions and laws.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 305.
Ex 1. 7. The Hebrew text deliberately repeats three verbs used in Genesis 1:.. 21.22 and can be translated "increased very fruitful ... multiplied ..." This increase was interpreted as the blessing promised by God to His creation time A Handsome had passed since the death of Joseph. lowest in the estimates, Moses was the fourth generation after Levi (Num. 26:58) and he may have lived hundreds of years later (12:40) And the land was filled with them if or refers to the land of Goshen (probably the Wadi Tumilat, stretching from the Nile to the line of the current Suez Canal) or, in hyperbolic language, all the territory of Egypt. latter interpretation, although statistically incorrect, expressed the feelings of Egypt, which in some parts had been reduced to a minority on the undesirable immigrants.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 51-52.
The fulfillment of the promise of God (1.7). The children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly. Although the men that God chose to die, He takes care of the children left behind. God promised Abraham that he would increase the seed (Gen. 12:2; 15.5; 17:1-8) and here in Egypt, this promise was fulfilled. When Israel left Egypt computava total about 600,000 men, besides women and children (12:37). Taking into account the time elapsed was not necessarily unusual growth. But considering the hostile environment, this increase showed the special providence of God. What God promised to mankind at creation (Gen. 1:28) was now being fulfilled in their chosen family. The words come greatly increased the Hebrew meaning "abound or swarm" as happens with insects and marine life (see Genesis 1:20; 7:21). .3 The Israelites were not only very numerous, but were greatly strengthened and logical that this expression indicates health and vigor Moses recognized this gracious providence when he wrote. "miserable Siro was my father, and went down into Egypt, and sojourned there with a few people, but there grew to become great, mighty, and populous" (Deut. 26.5 ).
The land was filled with them with regard to Goshen, where Jacob and his sons settled (Gen. 47.1,4-6,27). There is no doubt that over time they grew to the point of this place become too small, causing them to relate to the Egyptians in other regions of the country. The numerical increase soon caught the attention of the king.
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 141.
2. A baby is rescued from death.
As said, Moses did not come into the world in an environment conducive to the birth of a Hebrew boy period. The more the Israelites were afflicted, the more they multiplied to the point that the king give orders to the Hebrew midwives, Shiphrah and Puah, to kill the newborn boys. Pharaoh believed he could count on the obedience of these women, but they feared God and did not obey the king, was later rewarded by GOD. When called to account, told the king that the Hebrew women were "live". Updated Version of the Bible uses the "strong" expression, and the New Living Translation Today says that the Hebrew women "give birth with ease." Regardless of the versions used, the texts show that midwives were surveyed by Pharaoh, and gave him an answer that exempted from dirtying their hands with innocent blood. Our faith in God should always motivate us to do what is right and fair, and above all, not to condone what is wrong.
But the plans of Pharaoh did not stop. If the Hebrew midwives did not comply with the orders given, order now moved to the Egyptian people: "Then Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, but observe all daughters alive "(Ex 1:22). This means that any Egyptian or Egyptian could enter the houses of the Israelites, stop them in the streets or anywhere where they would pick up the newborn child, giving him the sex and if it was a boy , taking it from his mother and go straight to the River Nile to throw the baby, so he drowned or were eaten by crocodiles. plans of Satan were cruel, and left a clear sign of what was yet to come for the children of Abraham. Another thing to note is the fact that human wickedness creates evil methods to get their deeds. But if Satan had a plan of oppression, slavery and death against the Hebrews, God also had a plan, but deliverance, liberation and life for their children.
The Bible says that a couple of the tribe of Levi had a child, and could not longer hide him, placed him in a basket of reeds, a very fragile construction to protect a child. That simple basket was placed at the edge of the river, between the plants. And exactly in that place Pharaoh's daughter went to bathe, and seeing the basket, ordered one of her servants was the pick. Pharaoh's daughter took pity boy, and decided to create it this way God preserved the life of the boy Moses, Pharaoh's daughter using for such deliverance.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 10-11.
Exodus 1:17 The midwives ... feared God. The Hebrew midwives listened and nodded (in order to save his own life). But, time critical, spared from death to children. Humanity, mercy and fear of God were, for them, the more powerful motives of self-preservation than 0. The fear of God and mercy are part of true religion.
Humor. Yahweh defeated the genocidal plan of Pharaoh. Orders to an even greater source of Pharaoh, the throne of the Most High himself were downloaded. Thus, Israel continued to multiply and thrive, despite all the plans of Pharaoh and his genocidal orders.
When Israel finally left Egypt, according to Moses told the Israelites asked "borrowed" things from the Egyptians And when Aaron tried to apologize before Moses about why he had a golden calf, Aaron cast blame on the fire, saying. " and I cast it into the fire, and out came this calf "(Ex. 32.24), as if he had been so surprised as anyone else. Therefore, there is enough humor into the book of Exodus. But we can be certain that, as regards midwives, the issue was so serious as mortiferamente a matter of life and death. Some scholars think that this verse is there any indication that they were also involved Egyptian midwives, not just Hebrew. was the fact that midwives, as a class, answered "yes" to Pharaoh, but acted with a "no" when it comes to Royal Decree kill the Hebrew boys.
Exodus 1:18 Why ... forsaken the boys live? "Why have you disobeyed my orders and acted contrary to what I had ordered way?" So Pharaoh asked 0. It was something that could not be concealed. The Vs. 19 gives a ridiculous answer where 0 Pharaoh could hardly have believed. But do not read that he has sent to punish the midwives. Maybe 0 sacrum author has loved us save the gory details of vengeance. View Eze. 16.4 as the items involved in the ancient process of birth.
of births. Some scholars assume that would be involved in all this a 'smart use of facts, "ie, perhaps the midwives said unto occurred with some frequency, but the fact is that the sacred author told a little joke here See a demonstration. lived mood in Ge. 29.26. Various scholars make much effort to illustrate how some women give birth to their children, with great ease, especially among the working classes. Though some cases may be presented as proof of this, then we have mere exceptions and not the rule of what happens at delivery.
Exodus 1:20 God dealt well with the midwives. They refused to practice a great evil, and God blessed them. And so Israel has increased even more in number and power for a certain period of time. For how long, the sacred author does not inform us. But time passed, and the problem of Pharaoh would only accentuating, leaving him annoyed. GOD was winning in each "round" of fighting. Informational One of my sources says that God blessed those women, despite their lies. Lies But others suppose that save lives are of no evil. Obey GOD, and not to men will always be the duty of men (Acts 5:29).
Exodus 1:21 He constituted them family. This translation is an interpretation, The Hebrew says "made them houses", implying that the other Israelites, seeing the good service they had rendered, built houses for them. But some scholars give credit to Pharaoh: he would put in the house, so they could be better controlled. However, it is most likely that we have here an allusion to fertility. Those good women, to help the Israelites couples by not obeying the orders of Pharaoh were blessed with their families.
This verse extends the idea of ​​divine blessing, said in vs. 20. How could God reward those women meth? Giving them children themselves.
Exodus 1:22 Tyranny redoubled. Since 0 decree because the midwives did not work, now 0 Pharaoh gave orders to his own people to that of the Hebrews desvencilhasse pestiferous, casting their male children into the Nile to drown it. Among other things, the sacred author is telling us here that the persecution of Israel had reached a high point for the people of Israel were forced out of Egypt. No persecution, Israel would have been content to remain in such a fertile region. Only adversity could make them querei · therefrom. Thus, the worse became the pressure exerted by Pharaoh, the better for the divine plan.
When Israel was about to leave, because of the oppression, then it would be provided the agent of deliverance, Moses. God has a timeline in His eternal plan, and also has the resources, human and otherwise, to meet this timeline.
Infanticide. This crime so shocking to Christian ears, has a very rich history. Its modern counterpart is abortion. We are all familiar with exposure to weathering of children in ancient times, especially for girls, who were left adrift to die, by marking a certain period. If a child came to withstand such harsh treatment, then it is that the gods wanted her to live. But since usually the baby died, came to the conclusion that the gods did not want their survival.
"In Sparta, the state decided whether a child would live or die. Ate In them, a law of Solon made the decision to charge the parents. In Rome, the rule was that infants were dead, unless your parents do intervene and to declare that his will was that the child lived. Syrians offered non-beloved children to Molech, in sacrifice.'s Carthaginians sacrificed them to Melcarte "(Ellicott, in loc.) Since the Nile was considered somewhat divine, Children launch there was an act seen as a sacrifice made to divine powers. The Nile was full of crocodiles, and children thrown there served as food for reptiles, and so their little bodies not polluted the river.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 307.
Exodus 1:19. Are vigorous and before the midwife comes to them have given birth their children. We are not told if the midwives were lying or if fast deliveries of babies Israelites were a biological fact.
Driver quotes Arabs parallel but Rachel certainly had a difficult birth (Gen. 35:16). And even if they had lied, it was not the lie that were praised, but by refusing to take life for newborns, gifts of God. His respect for life was the fruit of their reverence to God, the giver of life (20:12,13), and so were rewarded with their own families. The relevance of this incident to the current controversy over abortion should be carefully examined.
Ex 1. 22. The Hebrew term for the Nile is a borrowed word from the Egyptian language and means "river" par excellence, ie the Nile (Other terms borrowed the Egyptian are "junk" and "frog",. Moreover, several names Egyptians themselves occur, especially in the tribe of Levi.) The execution by drowning was an obvious method in countries such as Egypt and Babylon, as the stoning was the obvious method in rocky country like Israel (Joshua 7:25). If Israelite nation generally obeyed the mandate of Pharaoh did not know: sure, Moses' parents defied the wrath of Pharaoh (Heb 11:23) All daughters These presumably would become concubines (slave-wives) and could be.. absorbed by the Egyptians in a generation. Such vain attempt to eliminate the people of God finds its parallel in the New Testament when Herod tries to destroy a whole generation of boys in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:16). however, as in the New Testament, the agent chosen GOD is protected, neither Pharaoh nor Herod may oppose the plan of God Jews Exhibitors see parallels between the plane of Pharaoh and attempted genocide against Israel made by Hitler and others;. Christian expositors have sought parallels in such severe persecutions suffered by the Church throughout its history.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 53-54.
Second measure - The killing of newborn Hebrew boys (w. 15-21). If this plan had worked, Pharaoh would have exterminated the Jewish people. The future generation of men would be dead, and the girls end up marrying Egyptian slaves and being assimilated by the Egyptian race. However, according to Genesis 3:15, 12:1-3, God did not allow that to happen and used two Hebrew midwives to thwart the plan of Pharaoh. This is the first case in Scripture of what we call today "civil disobedience," refusing to obey a perverse law in view of the common good.
Scriptures such as Matthew 20:21-25, Romans 13:01 Peter 2:1 T, admonish Christians to obey human authorities. However, Romans 13:5 reminds us that obedience must not offend our conscience. When the laws of God are contrary to the laws of men, "We must obey God rather than men" (Acts 5:29). One example is not just for midwives, but also of Daniel and his friends (Daniel 1, 3, 6) and the apostles (Acts 4, 5).
Midwives were lying to Pharaoh? Probably not. Babies born before the midwives arrive because Shiphrah and Puah had asked his assistants who were late! God blessed the two head-midwives by risking their lives to save the Jewish nation from extinction. However, honored them in a strange way: gave them children at a time when it was so risky! Perhaps you have them or daughters, then protected their children as did Moses. Anyway, this blessing of God shows how precious children to the Lord: he desired to give these women the highest reward and thus gave children Shiphrah and Puah (Ps 127:3).
Third measure - the drowning of male babies (v. 22). When Pharaoh found out that he had been tricked, he changed his plan and ordered all the people to arrange for the Hebrew male babies were drowned in the sacred river Nile. Pharaoh's guards had no way to watch each of the Hebrew midwives, but the Egyptian people could keep an eye on the Hebrew slaves and warn when a boy was born. However, to be born a boy Pharaoh could not kill.
Wiersbe. Warren W. Expositor. AT Vol I. Publisher Central Gospel. pag. 235.
The Hebrew Midwives
The final verses of this chapter offer us an edifying lesson from the conduct of those who fear God, and Puah Shiphrah women. Braving the wrath of the king did not execute his cruel plan and why God made them houses. "... Them that honor me I will honor" (1 Sam 2:30). Always recall this lesson and act according to it.
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
This part of the book of Exodus abounds in profound principles of divine truth-principles that can be subdivided as follows: the power of Satan, the power of God and the power of faith.
In the last verse of the first chapter we read: "Then Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river." This was the power of Satan. The river was the place of death, and through death, the enemy sought to frustrate the purposes of God. Always has been. Snake has always guarded with evil looking instruments that God is about to use to accomplish His purposes. Take the case of Abel in Genesis chapter 4. The snake was not lurking that vessel of God to put part through death? Take the case of Joseph in Genesis, chapter 37. Then the enemy seeks to put the man chosen by God in a place of death. Take the case of the "royal seed" in 2 Chronicles, chapter 22; promoted the slaughter by Herod in Matthew 2, and the death of Christ in Matthew 27. In all these cases we see the enemy looking at the death, to interrupt the flow of divine action.
But, blessed be God, there is something after death. Whole sphere of divine action, as regards the redemption, is beyond the limits of the dominion of death. When Satan's power runs out is that of God begins to show itself. The grave is the limit of the activity of Satan, but therein also begins to divine activity. This is a glorious truth. Satan has the power of death, but God is the God of the living and gives life that is out of the reach and power of death-a life in which Satan can not touch. The heart finds sweet refreshing this truth in a world where death reigns. Faith can calmly contemplate employing Satan the fullness of his power, it can rely on the powerful intervention of God in the resurrection. Can post beside the grave you just close up on a loved one and drink the lips of Him who is "the resurrection and the life" high assurance of a glorious immortality. She knows that God is stronger than Satan and can therefore be expected, serenely, the manifestation of that higher power, and while thus waiting to see his victory and his peace. We have a prime example of the power of faith in the first verses of the chapter we are considering.
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
3. The mother of Moses (Exodus 6:20).
The Bible presents Moses' mother as a woman who descended from Levi, one of the brothers of Joseph She had a boy, and tried to hide it for three months. We need to agree that this was really a great achievement, because in a time when the Egyptians hunted baby boys of the Hebrews, this woman ventured much to preserve life in the fruit of your womb. It was an act of faith. Note that the Word of God does not mention the name of Moses' parents now, but cites Miriam. Leo G. Cox, commentator of the book of Exodus Commentary Beacon, suggests that Moses was not the couple's first child, because her sister Miriam had enough to take care of his brother (4; 26.59 Nm) age. Furthermore, Moses' brother, Aaron, was three years older than him (6.20, 26.59 Nm). It seems that the edict of the king came into force after the birth of Aaron, Moses being the first child of this couple whose life was in danger because of the proclamation of the king.
What is certain is that this woman put her son in a basket of reeds by faith, and by faith saw her son's life be preserved by God. The Lord not only saved the boy's life, but it made the mother of Moses was paid to take care of his own son.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 11-12.
Ex 6. 20 Jochebed. In Hebrew, glorified by God or Yahweh is glory. That was the name of a daughter of Levi, sister of Kohath, Amram's wife, mother of Miriam, Aaron and Moses (Ex. 6:20; Num 26.59). Some scholars cast doubt on the meaning of this name, which appears to be composed with the divine name Yahweh (see the Dictionary). This they argue because they are convinced that the use of the divine name, Yahweh, is the time of Moses. There is evidence, however, that this name actually pre-dated the days of Moses, and it was used among ancient Semitic peoples. In Exodus 6:20 it is recorded that Jochebed was Amram's sister, who was the aunt of her own husband. Since marriages between close relatives so were later forbidden (Lev. 18:12), several attempts have been made to alleviate the situation of incest. But these attempts are useless, since there is clear evidence of such relationships in other cases of blood. Abraham married Sarah, his half-sister (Gen. 20:12). The Septuagint makes Jochebed Amram's cousin, but this only reflects a change in the ancient sacred text. I have set out a detailed study on the incidence of incest in the Old Testament, in the introduction to the eighteenth chapter of Leviticus. Social mores are changing, and there are biblical teachings that have accompanied these changes. The revelation is progressive, not stagnant and fixed. Things that were not considered wrong went wrong to be considered, following the progress of spiritual enlightenment, and vice versa.
Amram lived up to one hundred thirty-seven years. And this detail is mentioned because he had been the father of Aaron and Moses.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 328.
Ex 6. 20. Amram married his paternal aunt. Such a marriage would be prohibited by the Mosaic law (Lev. 18:12,13), then such detail could never have been invented later. As for other old "transgressions", compare Abraham's marriage to his half-sister.
Jochebed. Much has been discussed about the possibility of the first syllable of the name contain the name YHWH, in its short form Yo (as in Joshua, for example). If this is true, it follows the argument that the name YHWH might already be known and used by the family of Moses as a family title for GOD, before gaining wider use in all Israel. Even if it were known only by the descendants of Kohath, it would be worth thinking there had been more than a single occurrence. If the traditional vocalization is correct, the name means "YHWH's glory" (compare Ichabod, "no glory").
Probably best vocalize the word as yakbid, "He (GOD unidentified) glorify" which follows a common pattern among Israeli names:. Vocalized so, there would be no reference to the name YHWH formed from the third person singular Names are common: cf Jacob and Ishmael.
Aaron and Moses. In all the genealogies, the two appear as the fourth generation from the patriarchs. This may be irrelevant. In Israeli family trees is common omission of some branches, either by symmetry (as is apparently the case in the genealogy of Christ) or for any other reason. If "four generations" is taken literally, then the sojourn in Egypt must not have far exceeded a century, and the "four centuries" of Genesis 15:13 should be seen as a general approach, "four generations".
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 84.
Moses' parents were Amram and Jochebed (Exodus 6:20), and while the text of Exodus emphasizes how her mother had faith, Hebrews 11:23 praises both father and mother because they were confident in God. Undoubtedly, it was necessary that the two had faith to have marital relations in perilous times in which the Hebrew babies were being killed.
Moses became a great man of faith and learned about it first with his parents, and God-fearing couple. Amram and Jochebed had two more children: Miriam, the eldest, and Aaron, three years older than Moses (Ex. 7:7).
From the beginning, Moses was considered "pleasant to the eyes of God" (Acts 7:20; see Heb 11:23), 9 and it was clear that God had a special purpose for him. Believing that parents bucked the edict of Pharaoh and protected the life of your child. It was not easy, since all the Egyptians had become official spies Pharaoh looking for babies to be drowned (Exodus 1:22).
Jochebed followed the law to the letter when Moses placed in the waters of the Nile, but certainly defied the orders of Pharaoh in the way followed this law. He trusted in the providence of God and was not disappointed. When the princess went up the Nile to perform their religious ablutions, saw the basket, found the baby and heard him cry. Following her maternal instincts, saved the child and nursed him.
God used the tears of a baby to control the heart of a powerful princess.
Used the words of Miriam in order to arrange for the baby to be raised by his mother and still receive so! The "fragile as a baby" expression does not apply to the kingdom of God, when the Lord wants to accomplish his mighty work often begins sending a baby. It happened when he sent Isaac, Joseph, Samuel, John the Baptist, and especially Jesus. God can use the weak things to defeat the most powerful enemies (1 Cor 1:25-29). The tears of a baby were the first weapons of GOD in their war against Egypt.
Wiersbe. Warren W. Expositor. AT Vol I. Publisher Central Gospel. pag. 235-236.
"And there was a man of the house of Levi, and took a daughter of Levi. And the woman conceived, and bare a son, and saw that he was beautiful, she hid him three months. Could not, however, hide more it took an ark of bulrushes and betumou with bitumen and with pitch, and put the child in it, put it in the reeds at the river's edge And his sister stood afar off, to know what had happened to him. "(verses l-4).
Here we have a scene of touching interest, whatever the point of view of the face. In reality, it was simply the triumph of faith over the influences of nature and death, leaving place to the God of resurrection act in His sphere and character proper to him. It is true that the enemy's power is evident, since the child has to be placed in such a position - in principle, a position of death. And besides, it was as if a sword crossed the mother's heart to see your precious child exposed to death. Satan could act and nature could weep. However, the quickening of the dead was behind that dark cloud and faith through Him there illuminating the top of this cloud with His life-giving rays and bright "By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a beautiful child, and feared not the king's commandment "(Heb. 11:23).
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
4. The daughter of Pharaoh (Ex. 2 5.6).
Pharaoh's daughter enters the scene in the history of the Hebrew people. God has an interesting sense of Humour: If the king of Egypt commanded the death of the Hebrew boys, God would graciously Pharaoh's daughter to preserve life in the boy who would, years later, the deliverer of the Israelites. Almost nothing is said about this woman, but what we have here is enough to understand that divine providence can use people who do know, and that does not even have the same fear of GOD to us to help us prosper and the divine plans.
The daughter of Pharaoh not only felt moved by the situation that boy placed in the basket of reeds. She immediately knew that this baby was the Hebrews, and despite there being an order that the Egyptians throw all male babies river, Pharaoh's daughter decided not to obey. She kept the boy alive.
"Dwight L. Moody wisely remarked that 'Moses spent his first forty years thinking he was somebody. Seconds forty years spent learning he was a nobody! The last forty years he's spent discovering what God can do with a nobody'. "
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 12-13.
Ex 2.5 The daughter of Pharaoh. See the notes on Exod. 1.8 and 2.1 as a conjecture about who was this Pharaoh. See also the Dictionary 0 Article Pharaoh in his third section, as pharaohs connected to the Old Testament. Jewish traditions fantasize the story, saying that the daughter of Pharaoh was leprous, but when taking 0 basket into the water, was made whole. Archaeology unearthed 0 wall of an ancient synagogue at Dura-Europos depicting the scene of this verse. Their minds were connected. The mind of the mother of Moses, the Egyptian princess mind, the mind of the infant Moses. The coincidences do not occur by chance. Nothing happens by accident. GOD was involved in everything. "Often we see no sense or reason in the way things happen to other people, but as we age we are seeing a kind of providence in the way things have happened to ourselves ... We're by-teens more spiritually to get to that faith that Jesus had, but realized that there is something there that we can follow from afar "(J. Edgar Park, in loc.).
The Maidens lost opportunity. They were too concerned with obeying the decree of Pharaoh. But the princess was not afraid, and so was her reward.
Josephus called this princess by the name of Thermuthis, adding to the fabulous story elements. These elements become an enjoyable read, but are far from reality. The princess was the river bathing, certainly a place where women were accustomed to do so. Perhaps Moses' mother has purposely left 0 where Egyptian women used to go, in the hope that some of them wore mercy. It was precisely what happened 0.
Ex 2.6 The boy cried. The cry of an infant melt the heart of any woman, and also of most men. There is nothing so helpless as a human infant, which, for so long, it shows so dependent. The princess had compassion, though he knew very well that the boy was a Hebrew. But love does not make the distinctions that hatred does. The crying child stood crying the whole world that God loved as men, before God, are nothing more than helpless infants. Some men, by their theology, these are "infants" to be hated and destroyed, instead of being taken out of dangerous waters. But the love of God is sufficient for all (John 3:16), and there was provi-sion for all ( I John 2:2;... Ped I 4.6) As the princess reached out and saved the baby, so the long arm of the divine provision actually acode to all men, not just potentially not sufficient that, potentially, the princess Moses could take the waters. Moses was mister take water, or anything else would make sense. Providence of God shows up clearly evident in nature and in all aspects of human life. therefore we allow to flow the love of GOD.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 308-309.
"And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river, and her maidens walked along by the river's edge;., And she saw the ark among the reeds and sent her maid, and took it and, opening it, saw the boy, and behold, the babe wept and was moved with compassion on him and said, 'children of the Hebrews is this "(verse 5-6). Here, then, begins to sound the divine response in sweet whisper in the ears of faith. God intervened in this. The rationalism, skepticism, infidelity and atheism, can laugh at this idea. And faith also, but laughs are different. The first laugh with scorn the idea of ​​divine intervention in a banal ride of a real princess the riverbank. The second ri cordial contentment to think that God is in everything. And indeed, if ever God intervened in anything was in this tour of Pharaoh's daughter, although she did not know.
One of the most blissful occupations regenerated soul is following divine footprints in circumstances and events that unthinking mind assigns to chance or fate. Sometimes the most trivial thing can be an important link in the events that If God is serving to advance the lofty His designs chain. Take, for example, Esther 6:1, we find? A pagan monarch who spends a restless night.
There is nothing extraordinary about it, we can assume, and yet, this circumstance as a link in a great chain of providential events, after which comes the wonderful deliverance of the oppressed descendants of Israel.
This happened with the daughter of Pharaoh and his ride along the river. But she did not think it was helping the thoughts of "Lord God of the Hebrews"! Little did she know that the baby crying in the ark of bulrushes would still be the Lord's instrument to shake the land of Egypt, even to its foundation! And yet it was so. The Lord can make the wrath of man redound to His praise (Psalm 76:10) and restrict the remainder of cholera. As the truth of this fact clearly apparent in the following words!
"Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go to call a Hebrew nurse, that create the child for thee and the daughter of Pharaoh said to him:. Was going up and the girl and called the child's mother. Then said Pharaoh's daughter:.. Take this child and nurse it for me I will give thee thy wages And the woman took the child and nursed it And being the big boy now, and she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, which adopted him, and called his name Moses, and said, Because I drew him out of the water "verses (7 to 10).
The faith of Moses' mother find here their entire reward, Satan is embarrassed and the wonderful wisdom of God is revealed. Who could suppose that he had said to the Hebrew midwives "if child, kill it," adding, "all children born ye shall cast into the river," would play in his own court of these own children? The devil was overcome with their own weapons, because Pharaoh, who wanted to serve to frustrate the purposes of God, was used by God to feed and educate this Moses, who was to be His instrument to confuse the power of Satan . Providence remarkable! Wonderful wisdom! Indeed, "even this is from the Lord" (Isaiah 28:29). May we trust Him more simply, and then our career will be brighter and more effective our witness.
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
Ex 2. 5. The daughter of Pharaoh. The Apocryphal Book of Jubilees (47:5) calls it Tarmute; Hyatt's comment (p. 64) mentions "Merris" and "Bithiah" as other names attributed to him. It's hard to find a reason why these names are invented, so it is quite possible that we have here a fragment of an extra-biblical tradition worthy of trust. Compare the case of Jannes and Jambres, the names of the magicians who opposed Moses (2 Tim 3:8). If the Pharaoh in question was actually Rameses II, he had close to sixty daughters. He also owned several '' chalets' Hunt 'scattered throughout the delta area, where there were plenty of ducks and other types of hunting, so there is no need to assume that Moses' parents lived near the capital, Zoan.
Ex 2. 6. Took pity on him. No mother in the east would be able to leave a sturdy boy like that. We suspect that a girl would not have been lucky so favorable, but they were not subject to the death penalty imposed by Pharaoh. In all this, divine providence was at work.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 56.
The grace of God is revealed in the compassion shown by Pharaoh's daughter (6). Even when the bad guys are the worst they can, GOD, for his gracious power, puts goodwill and tender love in the hearts of people who are close to the tyrant. Little did the wicked king that God was executing his plan secretly, even when it seemed that the worldly monarch was having success. It is also interesting to note that, to create his own son, the Hebrew mother was to pay part of the money to Pharaoh (9). This is another example of the wrath of man is called to praise God.
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 144.
1. Moses is taken to the palace (Exodus 2:10).
Exodus 2:10 Moses Adoption by Princess. With the passage of time, it was investigated that Moses was not an ordinary boy. Came to have two mothers: her natural mother, who was 0 created, and his adoptive mother, the Egyptian princess, who officially adopted as his own son. It's beautiful when a child has two mothers, because there are so many children that do not have at least one. The passage from Acts 7:22 says that Moses was educated in the schools of Egypt, having absorbed all the wisdom of Egypt. Philo gives us similar information. Moses received a first class education as part of their preparation for the mission that you perform competi-tion. Finally, after forty years, Moses repudiated his Egyptian heritage, because, in his life, he had already passed the preparatory stage (Heb. 11.24,25). But during the first forty years, such education was necessary to him, having been useful for the rest of his days, though he did not want to live like an Egyptian.
Philo said that the Egyptian princess was a married woman, but no children, and that corrected this flaw of nature to adopt Moses (De Vita Mosis, c. 1 pair. 604 and 605). Artafanos raking it that the husband of the princess was coated man of great authority in Egypt, who ruled Egypt in the region that was north of Memphis (Apud Euseb. Praepar. Evan. 1.9 c. 27, par. 432).
Being the big boy already. No doubt after weaned. The boy has grown dramatically, physically and spiritually so. Josephus saw in these words something extraordinary [Antiq. Jud. II.9 pair. 6). Moses was a chosen vessel for a high mission, and from the beginning showed signs of it.
This called him Moses. Most probably, this name comes from the Egyptian month, which means "son" or "child." The Hebrew form of the name with a similar sound, Moshe, meaning "taken away," a reference to how it was taken from the Nile, perhaps predicting the "withdrawal" out of Egypt, when the exodus to take place.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 309.
Ex 2. 10. Moses mõseh, would be the active participle of the Hebrew verb Masah, "take, take." A different vocalization would give us the passive participle, "removed", but there is no need to force this meaning. As often occurs in the Old Testament, this name is not a perfect philological exercise, but a pun based on assonance.
Possibly the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh chose the name that appears in the second half of names like Tutmoses, Amoses and many other similar forms. It is impossible to know if the name "Moses" was considered an abbreviation for some longer form, but that does not matter. Bible, besides indicating that the name Moses is able to sustain this (pun that for the Israelite was rich in . spiritual meaning), suggests that the name was deliberately chosen because this capability Nothing is impossible here; West Semitic dialects were widely understood, even spoken in the delta area An Egyptian mistress could well understand and use language. their employees to give their orders, such as "mensahib" of the British Empire in recent days.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 56-57.
Moses is honored as the son of Pharaoh's daughter (v.10). It seems that their parents had not only seen the need to take care of it to Pharaoh's daughter, but they were very happy for the honor done thus to his son. Because the world smiles are stronger temptations than their closed faces, and harder to resist. The Jewish tradition says that Pharaoh's daughter had no children, and that was the only daughter of his father, so when he was adopted as his son, became entitled to the crown. While it is true that he was destined to enjoy all that the court had the better in due time, meanwhile Moses had the advantage of receiving the best education and the best development that the court could offer. This preparation, coupled with a great personal capacity, made Moses was master in any legitimate knowledge of the Egyptians, Acts 7.22. Note: 1. Providence sometimes rejoices when lifting the poor from the dust to put them among princes, Ps 113.7,8. Many who, by their birth, seem marked for obscurity and poverty, by surprising events of Providence are brought to sit at the upper end of the world. So men shall know that Heaven rules over all. 2. The precious GOD always knows the most appropriate way to qualify and prepare in advance for those He appoints him prestai1 great services. Moses, being educated at a court is best suited to be a prince and king in Jeshurun ​​man. Having received his education in a learned court (for so was the Egyptian court at that time), Moses was the most qualified man to be a historian. And because they have been educated in the Egyptian court, Moses is the most suitable to be employed, in the name of God, as an ambassador for this court man.
HENRY. Matthew. Matthew Henry Commentary Old Testament Genesis to Deuteronomy. Publisher CPAD. pag. 228.
2. The preparation of Moses (Ex 3.9,10).
God chooses people trained to do his work? Sure. There are references in the Word of God to suggest that He despises personal talents or experience gained by his servants. Saul was versed in three languages, and used to talk about Jesus in his missionary journeys. Matthew was a tax collector, and used his knowledge to write his Gospel. David was a fighter, but he was also a poet who composed many songs of worship to the Lord. Daniel was a prophet, but he was also a statesman. So, understand that God uses our resources in support of his Kingdom.
God empowers people to your work? Sure. Nobody can say that is fully ready to take definitive steps in walking with God. Elijah the Tishbite, raised a dead boy, but it had to spend a season in obscurity in Cherith, being held by crows, and after that the brook dried up, was directed by God to become a season being kept by a poor widow Sarepta, a city of Sidon, homeland of Jezebel. He was empowered by God for the challenges he would face. So it was with Moses, their training time in Egypt and in the desert, herding the sheep of his father, made him the man chosen by God for a work unique. As Christians, we are challenged to use our personal talents for the kingdom of God, and this includes seeking a solid and consistent training.
There is a phrase that circulates in car stickers that says. "God does not call the qualified, but qualifies the chosen" is a strange phrase, at least in my view, because God does not usually despise our experience of life, as if nothing prestasse in our existence. God can use anyone at his work, but over the biblical text he calls people trained, albeit narrowly, to serve him. Practically, God uses our gifts, studies and other resources we have developed over Life used to be in favor of his Kingdom. Therefore, the more resources we get through life, the more they can be used in the service of the Master. And it is our job to be trained within our power to provide the best to the Lord. In His wisdom, He will complement what we lack.
God always has a purpose when he called one of his servants to exercise any function or ministry and has its own way of preparing his chosen, as happened with Moses. In practice, we will never be always ready to meet the voice of GOD. Always lack some attitude which only science when we're in the middle of the journey. Still, for your patience, God asks us to trust Him we walk, and not that the baggage we accumulate knowledge and experience prior to then decide that we will obey.
When he was called by God, Moses was tending the flock of his father. After spending forty years in Egypt as a member of Pharaoh's court, having received a proper education of their social class, Moses flees Egypt for killing an Egyptian. He spent the next season forty years assisting his father in law to take care of sheep in a desert region, where he learned the ways of the wilderness, how to survive it, the types of animals in the region and climate issues. They were simple questions for those who had an education to tip in Egypt, but it was in this way that God prepared Moses. The wisdom of the Egyptians he already had. He must now learn how to live off the Egyptian court and depend on God on a journey that would last for years.
Dwight L. Moody wisely commented that "Moses spent his first forty years thinking he was somebody. Seconds forty years spent learning he was a nobody! The last forty years he's spent discovering what God can do with a nobody" (quoted by Charles Swindoll ).
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 13-15.
Ex 3. 10. I will send you. Davies points out this passage as the apostolic commission of Moses. There is no contradiction between the sending of Moses and the declared intention of God to personally do the work, God normally works through willing obedience to His servants doing His will. Christ may have had this passage in mind when he gave a similar His disciples (John 20:21) apostolic commission.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 65.
The divine plan (3.7-10). God was involved in the plight of his people. He said, I have surely seen, I have heard and known (7). Might have waited many years but knew all along. These words guarantee that God listens carefully to the cries of sorrow and know human trouble.
God is always at work in the world, "because in Him we live and move and have our being" (Acts 17:28). Interfere in history on special occasions to prove and accomplish his will. Told Moses that He came down to free his people from Egypt (8). had a place prepared for them in a good and wide land flowing with milk and honey. This description does not mean that Canaan was more fertile than Egypt, but it was a good, fruitful and spacious enough land to Israel. This was is a land identified by the names of people whose iniquity was full, having to relinquish the land in favor of the chosen of God (Gen. 15.16-21) .19 Although God could have freed Israel directly for a word, preferred to do his work by GOD said to his servant Moses.., I will send thee unto Pharaoh (10) This man, formerly self-styled liberator, had to go into the presence of the proud king and take Israel out of Egypt under the direction of God.
Identify "God's involvement with His people" in five statements: 1) I have surely seen, 7, 2) I have heard, 7, 3) met, 7, 4) I went downstairs, 8, 5) I will send thee, 10.
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 146.
Moses spent the first forty years of his life (Acts 7:23) working for the Egyptian government. (Some scholars believe that he was being groomed to become Pharaoh.) Egypt seems the least likely place for God to begin training a leader, but God's ways are not our ways. By empowering Moses for your service, God has used several approaches.
Education. "And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22). What was part of that education? The Egyptians were a highly developed civilization for its time, especially in engineering, mathematics and astronomy. Thanks to his knowledge of astronomy, developed a calendar of extraordinary precision, and its engineers devised and supervised the construction of structures that exist today. Their priests and doctors were masters in the art of embalming, and their leaders had great skill in organization and administration. Those who visit Egypt today inevitably impressed by the achievements that ancients. The servant of God must learn everything you can, dedicate this knowledge to God and serve him faithfully.
Wiersbe. Warren W. Expositor. AT Vol I. Publisher Central Gospel. pag. 236.
3. The flight of Moses (Ex 2.11-22).
Exodus 2:12 He killed the Egyptian. 0 followed this principle of "life for life" (Exodus 21:23), a kind of defense in favor of life, though the text does not say that the Egyptian was about to take the life of Israel. Moses exaggerated, as there is no excuse crime. informational One of my sources in a speech "outrageous" combination of precipitation and prudence. Moses acted on his own authority, showing a singular audacity. But the audacious courage, by itself, is not a virtue. The devil is daring, decided to face GOD himself. But that does not make him be righteous.
It counts as David Livingstone felt disgusted before the brutal treatment of slaves in an Arab slave market. Many baseless killings were being committed against the slaves, without sufficient grounds. And Livingstone confessed that his first reaction was "shoot the assassins with his pistol" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, in its article on Livingstone) But revenge comes from the Lord, and shall not come from any guy The law promotes the divine vengeance;.. And vindication that does not occur, the will of God takes care of that anyway. No error will not be corrected. See Rom. 13.1 ss., and 12:19. violence seems inevitable, at least on some occasions, but it always involves an error . lot of parents punish their children taken by a violent rage, usually because of some trivial inconvenience suffered.
"The Jewish commentators generally appreciated the act [of Moses], or even praised him as a patriotic and heroic action. But undoubtedly precipitate was made, made in an undisciplined spirit" (Ellicott, in loc.).
Exodus 2:13 Nettle. Moses concealed the evidence of his crime, but the matter did not end with the Egyptian buried in the sand. The next day, Moses tried to stop a fight between two Hebrews. But just knowing the part of one of the antagonists, that his murderous act had been seen, and no doubt discussed among observers. This meant that, soon, the whole story would be discovered, and Moses would be hunted down by the justice of Pharaoh. Perhaps the Hebrew tencionasse kill each other, but after all this is what Moses had done. See II Sam. 14.6. The social and psychological disintegration had taken account of the enslaved people of Israel, and they were abusing each other. The spirit of Moses was vexava before what he saw among his own people. His heart was being prepared, but a long time would be required to make up the instrument because of God's power. See Acts 7:26 as the New Testament parallel of this verse.
Exodus 2:14 The sacred author whispered here that had not yet reached the time of Moses receiving authority. The Israelites were not yet prepared; Moses himself was not ready. Moses was a prince in Egypt, to be adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter, and her adoptive father undoubtedly was also a man of great authority (vs. 10). To the Hebrews, however, it meant nothing. It was not for him to decide who was right and who was wrong, though later he had become the great lawgiver to whom all the people of Israel was obedience. In the Old Testament, justice (in Hebrew mishpat! Was not a positive knowledge nor a metaphysical principle, as it is with the ethical philosophy. Law was imposed by the living God. Potentially selfless acts of Moses, his concern for the oppressed , were not well received, and it must have seemed difficult for the young Moses (then forty years of age). A lesson we should learn from the beginning is to not expect applause. Most people fear the newly discovered truths that threaten traditional dogmas.
The Fatal Error of Moses. Moses had applied violence; murdered; had lost 0 respect from others. Now it would take long for him to win this.
Exodus 2:15 Moses fled from Pharaoh. This would now be hearing the news soon or hear her, that Moses had killed an Egyptian. And then send perform Moses. It consisted the greatest fear of Moses. And so Moses fled into exile forty years in the land of Midian, the second great cycle of life. View vs. 11. He started to become a menacing figure, intervening where it should not, inciting the people. Some interpreters see this text an aborted effort of emancipation. But the sacred author presents 0 episode as a single step in the preparation of the divine path of His servant. This needed to be hospitalized in the wilderness for forty years. It was all part of his preparation.
Land of Midian. Moses fled toward the southeast, away from where he lived maybe four hundred kilometers. Midian was a son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25.1-6). Thus, the Midianites were distant relatives of Moses, an Arab tribe that lived in the region south of Sinai and in the northwestern portion of Arabia. This differed greatly from the desert favored region of Goshen in Egypt, which was where 0 mainstream Israeli population. See Ge. 45.10. The Midianites were semi-nomadic. Its center was on the shores of the Gulf of Aqaba. The traditional site of Mount Sinai was in the area, The Nabataeans, very probably, were the successors of the Midianites in the region, were those who built the famous city of Petra (see respect in the dictionary).
At a well. Highly valued place in a parched land. See the articles titled Dictionary Well and Tank. Moses pitched his tent nearby. Had lost his exalted position son of Pharaoh's daughter, and now it was so unimportant as it once was important.
Champlin, Russell Norman, Old Testament verse by verse Played. Publisher Hagnos. pag. 310.
Exodus 2:11-15. Rejection of Moses and escape. 11. When Moses was grown. Acts 7:23 says that Moses was forty years old at the time. Exodus says only that he was eighty years old when he stood before Pharaoh (7:7) and who had spent many days in Midian (2:23). It is possible that forty years is a representative of a generation, to the western world is a space of thirty years. Acts 7:22 is absolutely correct in stating that "Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians", since it was created with other princes. This was the other side of the divine preparation. With the possible exceptions of Solomon, Daniel and Nehemiah No other character in the Old Testament received similar training (NDF 1:4). codes of law of the time probably were part of such training.'s Code of Hammurabi, for example, was widely studied and commented by Egyptian scribes, so that Moses probably knew him well.
And saw his painstaking labors. This phrase means more than just watch. Means "to do with emotion," whether with satisfaction (Gen. 9:16) or, as here, sadly (Gen. 21:16). Moses shared the emotions of the heart of God. GOD also saw what the Egyptians were doing the Israelites and was about to intervene (3:7,8). was not the thrust of Moses saving Israel that was wrong, but the action in which he engaged. beat, "killed" (12) and "killed" (13 ) are three different forms of the same Hebrew verb. This gives the narrative a continuity that can not play in Portuguese. Communicates also the impression of "eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (21:24). Maybe it was one of the hated Egyptian taskmasters works, and if Hebrew has the same broad meaning suggested above, then the sentence of their people is a necessary constraint to indicate a true Israelite. Ex 2.12. And hid him in the sand. Here is a touch of local color. There was sand on most of the rocky earth like Israel, and it would be much harder to hide a corpse in Palestine than in Egypt.
Ex 2.13. He said the culprit. Here is a legal term. Compare the description that Pharaoh makes of himself, as being guilty (ARC "unfair") while God is called "righteous" (9:27). Simple psychological perception was what made the culprit reject Moses, in terms that Pharaoh himself may have used later (5:2). Undoubtedly, the other Jewish, innocent, gladly accepted the help of Moses, as the publicans and sinners received the centuries after Christ with joy (Matt. 9:10).
Ex 2.15. The land of Midian. The location is quite uncertain, but undoubtedly lay beyond the borders of Egypt to the east. Some parts of the Sinai Peninsula, or the Arabah (the region south of the Dead Sea), or the part of Arabia east of the Gulf of Aqaba are possible locations. In the days of Ptolemy, the land of "Modiana" was located to the east of the Gulf If, as in Genesis 37:25, the Midianites traveled extensively, either for commercial or pastoris (3:1) or war (Judges 6 reasons.: 1), all these regions could be covered. Because later, the Israelites have become deadly enemies of Midian, it is unacceptable that the pilgrimage tradition of Moses in Midian has been invented.'s possible that "Ishmaelites" (Genesis 37:25) and "Kenites" (Judges 4:11) tribal names were used in Midian. Moreover, Judges 8:24 may support the view that the term "Ismaili" was much broader than "Midianite" , more likely, however, is that the terms were used good free Along the way a well Wherever there was a well in the desert, there would be a settlement,.., and for those who lived there, he would always be "the well ". The pit village was the natural place where to find the stranger or visitor. Similar meetings were recorded in Genesis 29:10 (Jacob) and John 4:6,7 (JESUS), in all three cases, it offers help (both material and spiritual) who is helpless and incapacitated, a picture of what God even will do.
Ex 2:16-22. Moses em midi. 16. The priest of Midian. Some scholars support this phrase meet me for the "quenita hypothesis", which claims that the mosaic is religião originou the media, and in-laws of Moses particular em. The Midianites, by TRADITION, pertenciam the same genealogical Arvor of Israel, with roots em Abraham (Gen 17:20) and it is highly unlikely that Moses learned we had something with them já não conhecesse the "COMMON law" of the western Semites. German said, the biblical account makes clear that the bem new revelation was given to Moses in "lot of God" (3:1) and his in-laws only accepted subsequently validated quando saw hairs events (18:11). Seven SON.
Again the ideal or sacred number; may well have been used literally in this case. Arab women (never men) still pick up water wells in Israel and Jordan, while the herds are usually guarded by boys and girls.
Ex 2.18. Reuel. Maybe it means "friend of God" or "Shepherd of God", the latter a very appropriate meaning in a pastoral society. A less likely meaning would be "GOD is pastor / friend." Just as there are doubts as to the location of media and even the Sinai, there are doubts as to the exact name of the father in law of Moses. Reuel The name is a form of good possibilities and in Genesis 36:4 appears as an Edomite name. 3:1 In the same man is called Jethro, the nominative form of a relatively common Arabic name. Hobab In Numbers 10:29 one, the son of Reuel the Midian appears : the text does not make clear which of the two is the father in law of Moses Hobab is a simple and Judges 4:11 Semitic name certainly describes Hobab as the father of Moses This means that either survived several traditions as to the identity of the father in law of Moses.. or else he had at least two names. course no problem in supposing that he had two (or more) names, since names are known double source of Southern Arabia. In such cases the biblical editor sometimes specifies both names , as in "Jerubbaal (that is, Gideon)" (Judges 7:1): Sometimes though, the two are used independently in the space of a few verses (Judges 8:29). The subject has no theological significance and is best to assume that the name meant so little to Israel that such uncertainty was possible. The tradition, however, is unanimous in affirming that Moses married the daughter of a priest of the Semitic eastern desert region, and lived there for pretty long period.
EX 2. 21. Zipporah. Can be translated as "Songbird", or less politely, "pipilante", is the name of a small bird in the region. Compare with equally simple names Rachel (ewe) and Léa) (heifer) in Genesis 29.
Ex 2. 22. Gershon. This name contains a pun by assonance, it was translated like the GER Sam Hebrew expression, "a pilgrim there" philologically, is probably derived from an ancient name Garas verb with the meaning of "expulsion";. General sense is thus approximately the same. As is common in the Old Testament, the observation is more a comment on the meaning of the name than an exact translation (cf 2:10). Look Hyatt as the suggestion that Gershon was the ancestor of the Levite clan of Gershon "Gersan" (Num. 3:21-26), with the change of the last consonant.
R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. EXODUS Introduction and Commentary. Publisher New Life. pag. 57-59.
Premature actions of Moses (2:11-15). The Israelites suffered injustices that gave Moses a sense of mission. When he was old enough to act on their own, personally examined the charge that his brothers endured. When he saw an Egyptian man smiting a Hebrew man (11), his desire to help the people came out.
Realized that he had reason to punish the wrongdoer, even though he knew that such an action would be dangerous. Smote the Egyptian (12), killing him, after making sure no one was looking. Moses had no authority from Egypt to correct these evils, and God have not had commissioned. Acting on their own, ran into difficulties.
The next day, when he tried to resolve a difference between two Hebrews, Moses learned that the murder was discovered Egyptian (14). Also learned that there was injustice among his brothers. The people who did not support the man who wanted to help him was not prepared to be a deliverer. And a self-appointed ruler (or "prince," ARA) and judge also was not prepared to be the deliverer. Moses had to wait long for God to receive instructions from a higher authority. King soon became aware of what Moses had made, but act before Pharaoh, Moses fled to the land of Midian where 15 forty years later (Acts 7:30) would be commissioned.
c) Moses in Midian (2.16-25). The Midianites were descendants of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25.1-4). Lived in the neighborhood of Mount Sinai in the Sinai Peninsula east of Egypt, across the Red Sea. This mountain was also called "Horeb" (3.1) .13 The priest of Midian (16) was called Reuel (18), which means "friend of God" .14 Elsewhere in the text, is known to Jethro (eg , 3.1, 4.12). Had seven daughters who fed the sheep of his father, but which passed bad times with the shepherds who abused girls. Moses, always ready to help the underprivileged, rose up to rescue them. The text does not say how he managed to cope alone with the group of pastors, but managed to keep them away while girls watered the flock (17). As a result of this kindness, Moses found a house and a wife (21). Here he became the father of the first child in a foreign land (22). The name Gershom "suggests not just 'weird', but indicates exile, banishment." During the time of Moses spent in Midian, the people oppressed in Egypt more intensely felt the crushing weight of slavery (23). Leaders of Egypt had resorted to cruel bondage to keep the Hebrews in bondage, discontinuing the policy of killing newborn male.
But God was taking care of her. He heard the groaning of the people and remembered the concert (24). GOD has postponed the release of Israel to Moses and Israel were ready. Moses needed the disciplines of the desert, and the desire for freedom of Israel needed boost. The continued slavery in Egypt united the people of Israel in the desire for freedom and faith that only God could deliver him. God hears the cries of his people, but wait until "the fullness of time" to give the victory. Knew them GOD (25) means "God cared about them" (VBB).
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 144-145.
Failure (vv. 11-14). Although some people confuse ethnicity with Moses (v. 19), he knew he was a Hebrew, not Egyptian, and could not help but identify with the suffering of his people. One day, took the brave decision to help them, even if it meant losing his position as a foster noble princess (Heb 11:24-26) son. The pleasures and treasures of Egypt faded when he saw helping to liberate the chosen people of God.
It is possible that the Egyptian official was not just disciplining his Hebrew slave, but beating him with intent to kill him, because that could mean that the Hebrew word used in this case. So when Moses intervened, he was probably saving the life of a man. And if the Egyptian turned against Moses, what should have happened, Moses was defending his own life.
However, if the plan was to free the Hebrews Moses killing the Egyptian one by one, was about to get a surprise. The next day, he discovered that the Egyptians were only part of the problem because the Hebrews could not even come to an understanding with each other! When he tried to reconcile the two Hebrews, they rejected your help! Moreover, Moses also learned that his secret had been revealed, and that Pharaoh was behind him to kill him. The only thing left to do was to escape him.
These two episodes show Moses as a compassionate and sincere motivations man, but at the same time impetuous in their attitudes. Knowing this, is it any wonder that, later, he was considered "more [Meek] than all the men which were upon the earth" (Num. 12:3).
Moses must have been devastated by his failed attempt to help free the Hebrews. So God led him to Midian and made him a shepherd for forty years. He needed to learn that deliverance would come from the hands of God and not of the hands of Moses (Acts 7:25, Exodus 13:3).
Loneliness and humble service (w. 15-25). Moses became a fugitive and hid in the land of Midian, relatives of the Hebrews (Gen. 25:2). Acting in accordance with its bold nature, helped the daughters of Reuel, the priest of Midian (Ex. 2:18). With that, he received the hospitality of that home, he married Zipporah, a daughter of Reuel, and this gave him a filho.11 Subsequently, Zipporah had another child which he named Eliezer (Exodus 18:1-4; 1 Cr 23:15). Raguel ("Friend of God") was also known as Jethro (Exodus 3:1, 18:12, 27), but it is possible that Jethro ("excellence") was his title as a priest and not your nome.12 Man " mighty in words and deeds "found himself now in solitary pastures tending sheep obstinate, but it was precisely this kind of preparation he needed to lead a nation of stubborn people. Israel was the special flock of God (Ps. 100:3), and Moses, the shepherd chosen by God. Just like in the thirteen years since Joseph lived as a slave in Egypt and how the interval of three years in the life of Paul after his conversion (Gal. 1:16, 1 7), the forty years of waiting and preparing work of Moses in for a lifetime of faithful ministry. God did not send his servants immediately, but enables them to his work.
Is delayed, it is not disinterest of God, because he hears our cries, sees our struggles, our sorrows sit and remember his covenant. Fulfill what he promised, as never breaks his covenant with his people. When the time is right, God is put to work immediately.
Wiersbe. Warren W. Expositor. AT Vol I. Publisher Central Gospel. pag. 236-237.
"It happened in those days, when Moses was great, went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens:., And saw an Egyptian man smiting a Hebrew man, his brethren and looked at one and the other side, and saw that Nobody was there, struck the Egyptian and hid him in the sand "verses (11-12). Moses here shows zeal for his brethren "but not according to knowledge" (Rom. 10:2). Not yet reached the time appointed by God to judge Egypt and deliver Israel, and intelligent servant should always wait for the time GOD. Moses was "already great" and "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," and furthermore, "supposed that his brothers understood that God was giving them deliverance by his hand" (Acts 7:25). All this was true, however, he ran, of course, before long, and when someone like that comes the result is failure (1).
And not only failure but also expresses uncertainty, lack of quiet devotion and holy independence in the progress of a job started before the time given by GOD. Moses looked a c another band. "No need for that when it acts with and for God and to the full understanding of his thoughts about the details of his work. If time determined by God had truly arrived, and if Moses felt he had been commissioned to carry out the sentence of God on the Egyptian, if you still feel the divine presence with him, would not have looked "the one and the other band."
The Death of the Egyptian, an Act Thoughtless and Premature
This act of Moses terminating a profoundly practical lesson for all servants of God. Two circumstances are connected with it, namely the fear of the wrath of man and the human hope of favor. The servant of the living God or be offensive in another. Who cares anger or favoritism of a poor mortal to him who is invested with the divine commission and enjoys the presence of God? For such a servant-these things are less important than the dust of the dishes of a balance "Not I commanded.! - Be strong and of good courage; pasmes not, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go "(Joshua 1:9)." Thou therefore gird up thy loins, and arise you, and say unto them all that I send, you not dismayed at them, because I will cause no issues in his presence. 'Cause I have set you this day a fortified city, and an iron pillar, and walls bronze against the whole land;., and against the kings of Judah, against the princes thereof, and against its priests, and against the people of the earth And they shall fight against thee, but they shall not prevail against thee: for I am with thee, saith the LORD, to deliver thee "(Jer. 1:17-19).
Thus placed on this high ground, the servant of Christ does not look at one and another band, but acts according to the counsel of heavenly wisdom: "Let your eyes look right and let thine eyelids look straight before thee" (Proverbs 4: 25). Divine wisdom makes us always look up and forward. Whenever we look around to avoid the scornful look of a deadly or deserve your smile, we can be sure that there is anything that is evil, we are out of own grounds of divine service. We lack the certainty of having the divine commission and feel the Lord's presence, both as essential.
It is true that there are many who, by deep or excessive confidence in themselves ignorance, come to a sphere of service to which God never designed them and for which, therefore, not prepared. And not only do seem like a coolness of mind and a perfectly amazing confidence in themselves to those who can form a fair idea of ​​their gifts and their merits. But these appearances quickly succumb to reality, and can not modify anything on the principle that nothing can really prevent man to look "over and over band" but the inner conviction of having received a mission from God and enjoy His presence. When we have these things we are entirely free of human influences and are independent of men. No one is as well placed to serve men as one that is independent of them, however, one who knows his true place can be lowered and washing the feet of his brothers. When you look away from the man and set about the only true and perfect Servant, not found "one to one and another band" for the simple reason that he never sought to please men but to God. He feared the wrath of man nor courted his favor. His lips never opened to cause the applause of men, and never closed them to avoid their criticism. So what he said and did had a holy stability and elevation. JESUS ​​is the only one who could truly say, "whose leaves do not fall and everything when he doeth shall prosper" (Psalm 1:3). Prospered in everything he did, because it made all things for God. Every action, every word, every movement, every glance, every thought was like a beautiful bunch of fruit sent to the top to refresh the heart of God. Never feared for the results of his work, because always worked with and for God in the full understanding of his will. His own will, though he was divinely perfect, never confused with that as man was on the earth, and so could say, "I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me "(Jn 6:38). So we gave "his fruit in his season" (Ps 1:3), and always did what pleased the Father (John 8:29), and therefore had nothing to fear, nor need no repentance, neither " look at the one and the other band. "
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
PREPARED: Pb Alessandro Silva.
COHEN, Armando Chaves. Exodus i 1.ed, Rio de Janeiro: CPAD, 1998. j HAMILTON, Victor P. Pentateuch; Manual. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: CPAD, 2007.
FACTBOX - Christian teacher CPAD Magazine, n ° 5 7, p.36.
Quiz Lesson 1 - The Book of Exodus and the Captivity of Israel in Egypt
Answer CPAD as the magazine of the 1st Quarter 2014 - CPAD - For youth and adults
Theme: A Journey of Faith - The Formation of the people of Israel and their spiritual heritage
Complete the blanks and check with "V" and the real answers "F" false
Golden Text
"And Joseph made the sons of Israel ________________________________, saying: Surely, you _______________________________ God, and ye shall carry up my _________________________ here" (Gen. 50.25).
Actually Practice
The _______________________________ of _______________________________ and GOD are _____________________________________ at the appointed time for Him
3 - What is the meaning of the word Exodus and what the purpose of the book of Exodus?
() The word exodus means liberation.
() The word exodus means departure.
() The Book of Exodus was written by Moses, and according to Pentecostal Study Bible was "written so that we had a permanent record of the historical and redemptive acts of God, by which Israel was delivered from Egypt."
() This book is the rise of Christ to the throne of grace.
() This book figure redemption.
() According to the Wycliffe Dictionary, "the concept of deliverance from death, slavery and idolatry is found throughout the book."

4 - At what time of the book of Exodus written?
() The Book of Exodus was written between 1150 and 1210 BC
() The Book of Exodus was written between 1250 and 1310 BC
() The Book of Exodus was written between 1450 and 1410 BC
5 - In this book we see how the Hebrews were severely afflicted by Pharaoh (Exodus 1:14). How to escape from so great oppression?
() Moses died in the wilderness to free the Jewish people from their sins, and their slavery.
() For the Israelites would be impossible.
() Only God could rescue them.
() Only the Father also could have rescued us from sin and the world.
() Christ died on the cross to free us from the power of sin. He died in our place.

6 - What did the Hebrew people to be cruelly oppressed by the Egyptians?
() God was already ready with a savior for his people.
() In this great distress cried unto the Lord and the Word of God tells us that the Lord heard the groaning of his people.
() Do not get discouraged! The Lord hears your prayers and is aware of your pain.
() God was already providing a deliverer for his people.
() As the Truth Practice teaches us this lesson: "The purposes of God are immutable and will be fulfilled in time determined by him."
7 - What was the situation of the Israelites in Egypt?
() They "were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied.
() Were greatly exalted, and Egypt was filled with them.
() Were greatly strengthened, and the land was filled with them.
() These same blessings God has for your church today.
8 - What do the following words of the biblical text from Exodus 1.7? Complete:
a) were fruitful, and increased abundantly, multiplied (Acts 9:31, Luke 14.22,23).
This was a growth ___________________________________. May GOD make us grow in quantity and in the church. _______________________________________
b) "Strengthened greatly." In the spiritual realm, a church must always strengthen on. ________________________________ Let us always remember that our supreme and abundant source of power is the ______________________________ ________________________________ (Eph 3:16; Zech 4:6).
c) "The land was filled with them" The church needs to fill not only _________________________________________ district, county, state, region, country and continent, but throughout the. ____________________________

9 - What did Pharaoh, concerned about the growth of the Hebrews? What does this mean and what is the deliverance of God at this time?
() Pharaoh gave an order to midwives in Egypt so that all Israeli boys under three years were killed.
() Pharaoh gave an order to midwives in Egypt so that all newborn Israelite boys were killed.
() But the midwives were God-fearing and not kill children.
() Pharaoh returned to the macabre scene, ordering the Egyptians that all Hebrew boys were thrown into the Nile River (in order to drown or be eaten by crocodiles) .
() It shows how much this king was cruel and evil.
() Is currently widespread this atrocity.
() Many children are being killed, victims of abortion.
() Is widespread infanticide and legalized by the authorities.
() The baby Moses was saved from death because her parents were God-fearing.
() We need truly Christian parents so they can care for their children's lives, as Moses was preserved from death.
() The parents of Moses, by faith in God, did not comply with the orders of the king and hid the baby at home.
() As a miracle of God, the baby Moses continued to be created by the mother herself.

10 - What is an example to be followed, given by the mother of Moses (Exodus 6:20)?
() Jochebed had no chance to stand next to his son to teach him about God, but Moses learned all this alone, God revealed to him.
() Jochebed took every minute that went just for your child to teach him about God, his Word, his people, the sin, the divine promises and faith in the Creator.
() Without a doubt, is an example to be followed.

11 - What miracle of God was operated by the daughter of Pharaoh (Exodus 2.5,6)?
() The daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the Nile and had a big surprise - there was a basket with a baby.
() God touched the heart of Pharaoh's daughter to adopt the Hebrew boy.
() Surely the princess did not know his father's orders against the Israelites.
() Surely the princess knew of his father's orders against the Israelites.
() Operating the Lord, who can reverse it?
() God, in his goodness, used Pharaoh's daughter to find someone in order to raise the baby Moses.
() This person was just Jochebed, Moses' mother.
() There is a reward for the pious and obedient parents.
12 - You have taught the Word of God to their children? (Staff)
() Yes
() No.
() Once in a while.
13 - As Moses is taken to the palace (Exodus 2:10) and what the providence of God in your life?
() Despite having been adopted by the wife of Pharaoh, Moses was raised by the daughter of Pharaoh.
() Despite having been adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, Moses was raised by his mother.
() Do not know how long he stayed at his parents' home, but at any given time the boy was taken to the palace.
() God cared for Moses at every stage of your life.
() He also cares for you.
() All events in your life are part of the Lord's plan.
() Do not get discouraged! It must have been difficult for Moses to leave her parents' home. However, in time, he did.

14 - How was the preparation of Moses in Egypt (Ex. 3.9,10), for the long journey leading Israel in the wilderness to the land of Canaan?
() Moses spent his youth in the royal palace.
() Moses spent his youth in the home of their rightful parents.
() As the son of an Egyptian princess, he attended the most renowned Egyptian universities, including Om.
() Egypt was then a world power.
() In Egyptian higher education are studying archaeological discoveries, administration, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, engineering etc ...
() This knowledge acquired by Moses, employed wisely, he was very helpful in his later mission of liberating, conductor, writer and legislator in the long journey leading Israel in the wilderness to the land of Canaan.
() God can use our skills acquired for the benefit of his work.

15 - How was the flight of Moses (Exodus 2:11-22)?
() Moses was raised as an Egyptian, but he knew he was a Hebrew.
() I was in Egypt, but did not belong there.
() One day, seeing an Egyptian mistreating an Israelite, Moses took the pains of his people and resolved to defend one of his brothers.
() Moses ended up killing a man and throwing the body in the waters of the Nile.
() Moses ended up killing a man and burying his body in the sand.
() He wanted to liberate his people by human effort, but the release would come by divine and supernatural power, for anyone to say. "We did, we got"
() Moses, like other Jews, needed to see and know that it was the Lord who had delivered them.  
() God has delivered us from the slavery of sin. He alone could break the terrible yoke of sin was upon us.
() It took forever to find Pharaoh that Moses killed an Egyptian. He should be arrested and killed. So scared, fled to Midian.
16 - What happened to Moses in Midian, and what that could mean?
() Ali was invited to the home of Jethro, a breeder of sheep.
() Ali was invited to the home of Jethro, a priest.
() Moses married one of the daughters of Jethro and raised a family, away from his parents' home and his people.
() Had to go to an unknown place and has become an alien, but it was all part of God's plan.
() In Midian, Moses could prove providential care of the Lord for him.
() You may need to also go to a distant place, however, do not be afraid.
() God is with you. Can be part of the training of the Lord in your life.
17 - Complete:
By studying ___________________________ years of Moses' life, we see that the Lord has set for each child _____________________________ yours. It is our duty to obey God, even our ___________________________________, as did Moses, we do it by _____________________________ powerful in us, the Holy Spirit, which God gives to those who _________________________________ him (Acts 5:32).
CPAD -  - Bibles, CD'S, DVD'S, Books & Magazines. BEP - Pentecostal Bible Studies.
Peq.Enc.Bíb. - Orlando Boyer - CPAD
Study Bible - Personal Application.
GARNER Paul. Who's who in the Holy Bible. LIFE
Champlin, RN The New and the Old Testament Interpreted Verse by verse. (CPAD)
STAMPS, Donald C. Pentecostal Bible Study. CPAD
The New Bible Dictionary - Zondervan - JD Douglas
Wycliffe Bible Dictionary - Charles F. Pfeiffer, Howard F. Vos, John Rea - CPAD.
Dictionary old and new testaments Vine - CPAD.
Theology of the Old Testament - Walter C. Kaiser Jr. - New Life
James, by Hendrickson Publishers - Contemporary Edition, Publisher of Life, Translated by Rev. Oswaldo Ramos.
EXODUS Introduction and Commentary - By R. Alan Cole, Ph. D. Menzies College, Macquarie University - Religious Society New Life - Religious Association Publisher Christian World
CH MACKINTOSH. Studies on the Book of Exodus. Publisher Association Press Religious Faith
Wiersbe. Warren W. Expositor. AT Vol I. Publisher Central Gospel. pag. 236-237.
Josephus. Hebrew history from Abraham to the fall of Jerusalem. Publisher CPAD.
Coelho, Alexandre; DANIEL, Silas. A Journey of Faith Moses, the Exodus and the Path to the Promised Land. Publisher CPAD. pag. 7-8.
DAVIDSON. F. New Bible Commentary. Exodus. pag. 2.
Leo G. Cox Beacon Bible Commentary. Publisher CPAD. Vol 1. pag. 141.
MERRILL. Eugene H. History of Israel in the Old Testament. Publisher CPAD. pag. 50-52, 54-56.

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